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Eliakim or Shebna? Isaiah Devotional Journal 44

Simultaneously posted by Christina Wilson on  at Eliakim or Shebna? Isaiah Devotional Journal 44 – justonesmallvoice.com

Isaiah 22:15-25     Link to LXE Modernized

Does Isaiah 22:25 Refer to Eliakim or Shebna?

Eliakim or Shebna? Today’s readers have a habit of reading chronologically, in a string. We are used to statements that flow sequentially. Latter statements attach to statements made immediately prior. Read this way, Isaiah 22:25 would naturally appear to belong with the immediately prior passage concerning Eliakim, the Lord’s servant. But Isaiah, embedded in the traditions of Hebrew written literature, did not necessarily, nor even by preference, write sequentially, in a string. It is possible that verse 25 refers to Shebna, rather than Eliakim.

An Analogy with “Power Paragraphs”

Can we think back to our early school days here in America? Many school districts required graduating high school students to successfully write an essay on a given topic. The most commonly accepted format was based on a series of “power paragraphs.” The multi-paragraph essay needed to contain a clearly identifiable topic sentence. Near the end of the essay, judges of the paper looked for a conclusion. The conclusion would most often refer back to the topic sentence.

In some disciplines, college students write many papers. These, too, must have a “thesis” statement near the beginning. Near the end of the paper, teachers required a conclusion. The conclusion would often repeat the thesis, but in somewhat different words.

It is possible to outline the structure of Isaiah 22:15-25 (Septuagint) as a “power paragraph.”

I. 15 Thus says the Lord of hosts, …

II. 25 … for the Lord has spoken [it].

The beginning phrase is nearly the same as the final phrase. A fancy word for this structure is inclusio.  Everything that lies between the beginning and ending statements is included in the passage. The beginning and ending statements are like bookends on a book shelf. What makes the argument convincing that such is the case here in this Isaiah passage is the fact that the phrase, “Thus says the Lord,” or, “for the Lord has spoken,” occurs nowhere in-between. So, the entire passage is a packet that opens and closes with the claim that what lies between was spoken directly by the Lord. It’s roughly analogous to an introduction and conclusion, a topic and conclusion, or a thesis and conclusion. Isaiah used a specific structure in his writing.

A Second Inclusio

The entire passage from Isaiah 22:15 to Isaiah 22:25 has two main topics. First, Isaiah prophesies concerning the wickedly prideful Shebna, who is to be deposed. Second, Isaiah prophesies concerning the Lord’s highly favored choice, the one whom he calls, “my servant,” Eliakim. Our outline now looks like this:

I. 15 Thus says the Lord of hosts, …

A. Prophecy concerning Shebna (15-19)

B. Prophecy concerning Eliakim (20-24)

II. 25 … for the Lord has spoken [it].

But, the question still remains, does the content of verse 25 belong with Section A concerning Shebna, or Section B concerning Eliakim? Note that as Christian readers, we are most likely cheering for Eliakim. That makes us potentially biased in our analysis. For example, in verse 25, we don’t want to read that Eliakim, a type of Messiah, “shall be removed… be taken away… shall fall…” and that his “glory… shall be utterly destroyed.” On the other hand, the way we normally tend to read in English appears to make this interpretation possible. We begin to make “excuses” and find reason for this decidedly gloomy portion.

First, perhaps Isaiah is prophesying that the human Eliakim, rather than the future Messiah, is the only one to whom these events will occur? In other words, perhaps this verse alone ceases to be messianic and refers only to a time frame closer to Isaiah’s own day?

Second, perhaps Isaiah is prophesying that Messiah will be cut off during his crucifixion? That would be true. He was. But then, where is his joyful resurrection? And isn’t his glory and kingdom eternal?

So, let’s look at the linguistic structure of sections A and B. Perhaps that will shed some light.

A New Beginning and Ending Phrase

I. 15 Thus says the Lord of hosts, …

A. Prophecy concerning Shebna (15-19)

B. Prophecy concerning Eliakim (20-24)

1. 20 And it shall come to pass in that day,…

2. 24 …they shall depend upon him in that day.

II. 25 … for the Lord has spoken [it].

The section concerning Eliakim, the type of Messiah, both opens and closes with the phrase, “in that day.”  This phrase serves as the bookends for another inclusio. Since the phrase in vs 24, “in that day,” is a bookend, it belongs with the metaphorical books on the shelf. These concern Eliakim, the Messiah. In other words, the opening and closing statements of an inclusio belong with the material included in-between.

A Grammatical Difficulty

When the reader compares several of the biblical translations available today, she will realize that most translators place the period before the phrase, “in that day.” Others place it after. So what? Simply this, if the period falls before “in that day,” then the phrase introduces and refers to verse 25. But if the period falls after the phrase “in that day,” then the phrase closes out the prior section and definitely connects with Eliakim and Messiah in verse 24. Grammatically, it could go either way. It makes sense both ways.

Translations which place, “In that day,” as the introductory words of verse 25 are the KJV, NIV, NASB, ESV, and NET. In other words, seemingly all the versions based on the Masoretic textual tradition read something like, “In that day, declares the LORD of hosts, the peg that was fastened in a secure place will give way, and it will be cut down and fall, and the load that was on it will be cut off, for the LORD has spoken.” (Isaiah 22:25 ESV)

It is important to point out that the “peg that was fastened in a secure place” could conceivably refer to Shebna in any event, period or no period. However, the manner in which we normally read language in strings causes many readers to place the reference upon Eliakim and Messiah.

The Greek text Brenton used places the period after “in that day.” Rahlfs’s Greek text places it before. NETS, the New English Translation of the Septuagint, by Moíses Silva, places the period after “on that day.” He translates the phrase as part of the prior clause, although it falls at the beginning of verse 25.

Where Do I Stand?

Personally, I like Brenton’s translation and the great sense it makes structurally. Further, I like the Greek text upon which his translation is based. It highly favors the presence of Messiah in the books of Isaiah and the Psalms. My eye of faith prefers his edition.

Other Reasons to Find an Inclusio

1. The major reason, of course, to place “in that day” as the concluding phrase of verses 20-24 is that it forms a beautiful inclusio, as outlined above, for verses 20-24.

2. A second reason to interpret “in that day” as descriptive of Eliakim, rather than Shebna, concerns vocabulary. Isaiah says of the wicked Shebna, “Behold now, the Lord of hosts casts forth and will utterly destroy such a man, and will take away your robe and your glorious crown,” ( Isiah 22:17 LXE, CAB). Isaiah calls Shebna “a man.” On the other hand, he speaks honorably of Eliakim/Messiah, “My servant,” (vs 20), “a father,” (vs 21), and “ruler,” (v23). In verses 20-24, Isaiah never refers to Eliakim/Messiah as “man.” However, verse 25 prophesies against “the man” that is “fastened in the sure place,” (Septuagint). (The Septuagint text never uses the word “peg.” That word appears only in the Masoretic.) The use of “man” in verse 25 (LXE) seems to refer back to Shebna, rather than Eliakim.

3. A third reason to place verse 25 back with verses 15-19, rather than with the embedded inclusio of verses 20-24, are the verb tenses. When Isaiah prophesies, who at that time, strictly according to this passage, is in the “priestly chamber” (Silva, NETS)? It is Shebna. The verbs the Septuagint uses throughout verses 15-19, about Shebna, indicate that he is presently in the priestly chamber and will be removed. Contrasting with this, the verbs in the portion about Eliakim/Messiah, verses 20-24, are every one future tense: “will” or “shall.” Verse 25, however, abruptly switches back to present tense, “The man that is fastened in the sure place…” Notice the less-than-admirable subject, “man,” and the present tense, “is.” These combined give strong evidence that the text in verse 25 refers to Shebna, rather than Eliakim/Messiah.

4. Finally, the vocabulary of verse 25 best matches the vocabulary used of Shebna, rather than that used of Eliakim/Messiah. For example, Isaiah writes that this “man” shall be “removed” and “taken away,” and that his glory shall be “utterly destroyed.” Correspondingly, Isaiah writes in verses 17-19, concerning the wicked Shebna, that the Lord will “cast(s) forth and will utterly destroy,” will “take away” his robe and crown, will “cast [throw]” him into “a great and unmeasured land,” where he “shall die.” The Lord will bring his “fair chariot to shame” and the house of his prince would be “trodden down.” He would be “removed” from his stewardship and from his place. Verse 25 fairly sums up and repeats the entire passage from verses 17-19, concerning Shebna.

25 The man that is fastened in the sure place shall be removed and be taken away, and shall fall; and the glory that is upon him shall be utterly destroyed;

5. In conclusion, it appears far more likely that for the reasons of structure and language just given, verse 25 should be applied to Shebna, rather than to Eliakim/Messiah.


Isaiah 22:15-25 presents an inclusio with a second inclusio embedded within. Verses 15 and 25, introduce and conclude the passage. Both of these verses, set off by the phrases, “Thus says the Lord… ” and “for the Lord has spoken,” refer to the wickedly proud Shebna, here a type of Satan.

The second inclusio embedded within the first is Isaiah 22:20-24. The phrase, “in that day,” (beginning of verse 20 and end of verse 24) sets off the boundaries of this inclusio. The first inclusio is about the wicked Shebna. The second refers to Eliakim, a type of Messiah, Christ.


Isaiah, up until now, at least, has given predominantly bad news. The section popularly called the prophecies, judgments, or oracles “against the nations” is particularly painful to read. On many levels and for many reasons, this portion of Isaiah will relieve and gladden the hearts of tender readers. He predicts the good news of a better priest/ruler to come.

First, he is God’s special servant, the whom God approves and sets in place. His authority will be great and his majesty glorious. He will be a father to many, and everyone, from least to greatest, will trust in him.

Second, because Isaiah prophesied of him a good 600 years before his appearance, those who hear know that he was indeed chosen in advance by God. His credentials are real. That Isaiah speaks of a good, faithful, humble, and wise servant/ruler is good news for the whole world.

Messiah the Servant: Isaiah Devotional Journal 43

By Christina Wilson on 

Isaiah 22:15-25     Link to LXE Modernized

I. A Messianic Announcement

Isaiah 22:15-25 is a key passage in Isaiah. At first glance, it may appear to be an ancient detail about the inner workings of King Hezekiah’s court, one without much relevance today. A deeper dive, however, reveals another of Isaiah’s many messianic prophecies. The technical term for Isaiah’s making a double prophecy in two entirely different time frames is “synchronicity.” This section is a “synchronous” prophesy. Isaiah really does mean the human person Eliakim. And, he also really does mean Messiah.

A Brief Side Note Concerning the Historical Time Frame

First, however, how is it that Isaiah sets the prophecy in King Hezekiah’s Day, before the Assyrian invasion? The prior section, Isaiah 22:1-14, made reference to the Babylonian invasion and resultant captivity (see in particular verses 3-4, 8-11, 13; see also Isaiah-Journal 42). That invasion occurred over a century after the Assyrian. Yes, Isaiah has mixed his time periods. He hasn’t written in chronological order. He does that frequently.

The primary indication that the prophecy in the second division of chapter 22 occurs before the Assyrian invasion is the fact of the names. Isaiah specifically mentions Shebna (Somnas in the Septuagint) in verse 15 and Eliakim in verse 20. These two names occur together in 2 Kings 18:37 and 19:2. During the account of the Assyrian invasion, Eliakim was “over the household” of Hezekiah, and Shebna was the secretary.

The story that Isaiah relates in 22:15-25 teaches many lessons concerning the pitfalls of pride and the virtues of humble service. A more exciting message Isaiah packed into the passage, however, is the messianic prophecy he makes.

How Do We Know This Passage Is Messianic?

1. The foremost evidence is verse 22:

Isaiah 22:22 And I will give him the glory of David; and he shall rule, and there shall be none to speak against him; and I will give him the key of the house of David upon his shoulder. And he shall open, and there shall be none to shut; and he shall shut, and there shall be none to open. (CAB, LXE) 

NOTE: The first portion of verse 22, “And I will give him the glory of David; and he shall rule, and there shall be none to speak against him;” is from the Septuagint. The Masoretic textual tradition does not contain these sentences.

Revelation 3:7 and its context indicate that Jesus Christ is the one “who has the key of David, who opens and no one will shut, who shuts and no one opens” (ESV). And, the New Testament is the best Christian commentary we have concerning the Old Testament.

2. The overall tone of Isaiah 22:15-24 is highly positive. God himself speaks (verses 15 and 25). He uses first person (“I”) when he bestows his favor upon his servant. Other than Isaiah himself (Isaiah 20:3), only Messiah has received favor in this biblical book so far.

3. Isaiah 9:1-7 is a prior messianic passage accepted by all. The word choices in that passage and this one show significant similarities. For example, consider the following.

4. Isaiah uses the word “servant” (verse 20) in other messianic passages. This is the first use with reference to Christ. Just a few of the other passages are: Isaiah 42:1-749:5-6, and 52:13-15. In chapter 9 Messiah is called “son” and here “servant.” Jesus Christ was both.

5. The fate of Shebna, the evil, prideful servant, is similar to the fate of Satan.

Isaiah 22:17 Behold now, the Lord of hosts casts forth and will utterly destroy such a man, and will take away your robe and your glorious crown, 18 and will cast you into a great and unmeasured land, and there you shall die; and He will bring your fair chariot to shame, and the house of your prince to be trodden down. (CAB, LXE)

When Jesus, God’s true servant, ministered on earth, he said he saw Satan fall from his position in heaven as the chief and most glorious of God’s created angels. (See also Isaiah 14:2).

Luke 10:18 And he said to them, “I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven.

The Glories of Messiah

Eliakim, the human servant, performed well, according to the biblical record in 2 Kings. The glories of the servant Messiah, however, far outweigh the glories of  the human. What does this passage reveal about him?

  • God is the one who calls his Messiah (Isaiah 22:20). Messiah did not appoint himself. God names him “my servant.” As servant, he represents God fully. He serves God, not himself. The servant is clothed in God’s authority.
  • He ministers first to Jerusalem and to the house of Judah, as a father–one who cares. All the characteristics and behaviors packed into the role of an ideal human father are packed into Messiah, as well.
  • Messiah is David’s heir (verse 22). God gives him David’s glory and authority. No one is higher than he. The power to “open” and “shut” is awesome in scope and majesty.
  • God appointed his servant with certainty (verse 23). His position was secure, not to be changed. God backed him fully, gave him his full support. God intended his servant to bear the glory of his own throne. God is his father. Everyone in the Father’s house, from the least to greatest, will trust in God’s servant-Messiah and be responsible to him (verse 24).

What About Verse 25?

Yes, Isaiah 22:25 appears to dash cold water on everything the prior verses proclaim. But who is verse 25 about? Is it about Messiah? Eliakim the man? Or, could it possibly refer to Shebna, the deposed steward? By way of forewarning, the discussion concerning verse 25 may be considered technical.


Fall of Jerusalem and Judea: Isaiah Devotional Journal 42

Posted simultaneously at: Fall of Jerusalem and Judea: Isaiah Devotional Journal 42 – justonesmallvoice.com

Isaiah 22     Link to LXE Modernized

Chapter Divisions

Isaiah 22 divides best into two parts: Isaiah 22:1-14 and Isaiah 22:15-25. Both parts concern Jerusalem and Judea, but the time frames are different. The first division occurs just over one hundred years after the second

I. Fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians and Exile

CLUES that Reveal Isaiah’s Prophecy Concerns Babylon

Isaiah 22:2 … your slain are not slain with swords, nor are your dead those who have died in battle. All your princes have fled, and your captives are tightly bound, and the mighty men in you have fled far away.  (CAB, LXE)

  • 2 Kings 25 describes the fall of Jerusalem. Verse 4 describes how the “whole army ran away at night…Zedekiah [the king] and his men ran toward the Jordan Valley.” There, abandoned by his scattered army, the hostile forces captured the king and took him bound to Babylon. He spent the remainder of his life a prisoner there. Nebuzaradan (Nebuchadnezzar’s commander) took captive nearly everyone else, as well. A few years later, 2 Kings 25:26 describes how “all the people [who were left behind after the first wave of captivity], from the least important to the most important, ran away to Egypt. The army leaders also went. This was because they were afraid of the Babylonians.” (ICB)

Isaiah 22:6 And the Elamites took their quivers, and there were men mounted on horses, and there was a gathering for battle.

By File:Near East topographic map-blank.svg: SémhurFile:Elam-map-PL.svg: Wkotwicaderivative work: Morningstar1814 – File:Elam-map-PL.svg, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=61956849
  • The World History Encyclopedia tells how Elam cooperated with the Medes and the Babylonians to dismantle the former Assyrian Empire (Elam – World History Encyclopedia (ancient.eu)). This occurred during the approximate time period when Babylon conquered Judea.

Isaiah 22:4 Therefore I said: “Look away from me; let me weep bitter tears; do not labor to comfort me concerning the destruction of the daughter of my people.” (ESV)

  • The Babylonian invasion was the first successful invasion of Jerusalem since King David established the city and Solomon built the temple. The Assyrians, a century before, turned back at the outer wall and were miraculously destroyed (2 Kings 19:35-36). This passage does not describe that event.
  • The phrase “daughter of my people” also reveals the time frame toward which Isaiah’s prophecy was aimed: that is, the fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians. The reasoning follows. First, this phrase occurs 13 times in all of Scripture. We see it once in Isaiah 22:4, seven times in Jeremiah, and five times in Lamentations (also written by Jeremiah). Second, each and every occurrence refers to the wounding, chastisement, or destruction of this daughter. Finally, Jeremiah 1:1-3 defines the time during which Jeremiah prophesied to be a good 80 years after Isaiah and up until the captivity of Jerusalem. This use of language supports the reckoning that Isaiah 22:1-14 refers to the Babylonian invasion, rather than the Assyrian.


Isaiah’s text reveals how greatly God loved Jerusalem and Judea. While Jeremiah claims the title, “The Weeping Prophet,” Isaiah, and God through him, weeps in this portion.

First, in verse 4 above, Isaiah cries out, “Let me alone, I will weep bitterly; labour not to comfort me for the breach of the daughter of my people.” (Brenton, LXE). This is the only place in all of Isaiah in which the prophet refers to Jerusalem as “the daughter of my people.” The word “daughter” is used several times in the phrase “daughter of Zion,” but never, except here, the “daughter of my people.” This is very personal to Isaiah and to God. This is his child.

Second, having just spoken of Jerusalem as the daughter of his people, Isaiah twice uses the word “uncover.” In verse 8 of the Septuagint he writes, “they shall uncover the gates of Juda, and they shall look in that day on the choice houses of the city.” Again in verse 9, he says, “And they shall uncover the secret places of the houses of the citadel of David.” In good times, these things ought not to be. There is great shame here. Neither Isaiah nor God are exulting in the capture and destruction of Jerusalem the city, its people, and its temple, once the house of worship of God Almighty.

In Isaiah 22:11, God uncovers his own heart, and the ears of faith can hear the anguish in the voice that cries out–

And ye procured to yourselves water between the two walls within the ancient pool: but ye looked not to him that made it from the beginning, and regarded not him that created it. (Isaiah 22:11 LXE)

This verse needs some explaining. Approximately 100 years earlier, Assyria came very close to overwhelming Jerusalem. 2 Kings 20:20 records how King Hezekiah had altered the water conduits that fed the city. He had blocked off the spring located outside the city wall. He dug a tunnel through rock and channeled this water into the city. He did this to withstand the privation a prolonged siege would cause. The tunnel is accessible in Jerusalem to this day. Isaiah 22:9 also mentions Hezekiah’s tunnel, “… one had turned the water of the old pool into the city;” This had been an amazing feat of engineering and a wonderful thing to do.

King Hezekiah was one of Judah’s few good kings. He followed the Lord’s commands diligently and loved him. He did turn to the Lord. He himself prayed, and he also called upon Isaiah, as the Lord’s prophet, for help.

However, during the days of the downfall of Judah and Jerusalem, no one remained who called upon the Lord’s name. Verse 11 makes reference to how they gladly relied upon the water from the ancient pool (King Hezekiah’s conduit). But they failed to call upon the eternal God. God had helped Hezekiah mightily. And more than that, God is he who exists from the beginning. He created the water. God does not begrudge them their water. But, the people should not have neglected to call upon God. God made the water in the first place and helped King Hezekiah build the conduit that carried it. It’s about gladly using the blessings of God but failing even to acknowledge the giver.

This verse mostly emphasizes how God desires relationship with his people. Isaiah describes Israel as God’s beloved vineyard and his people God’s choice vines (Isaiah 5:1-4). He refers to Israel as his God’s wife (Isaiah 54:6; see also Jeremiah 3:20). It’s the heart of faith, not imagination, that hears the anguished cries of a spurned lover in Isaiah 22:11. The verses following expound the depth of disappointment in God’s heart concerning his people.

Isaiah 22:12 The Lord, the LORD Almighty, called you on that day to weep and to wail, to tear out your hair and put on sackcloth. 13 But see, there is joy and revelry, slaughtering of cattle and killing of sheep, eating of meat and drinking of wine! “Let us eat and drink,” you say, “for tomorrow we die!” 14 The LORD Almighty has revealed this in my hearing: “Till your dying day this sin will not be atoned for,” says the Lord, the LORD Almighty. (NIV)

It wasn’t just anyone whom Judah had spurned. It was the Lord, the Lord of hosts (LXE), the Lord Almighty. He greatly desired that they would recognize their tragedy and call upon him in repentance and for help. But they would not. Instead, they pretended that God did not even exist.

This is the end. God’s patience has run out. “‘Till your dying day this sin will not be atoned for,’ says the Lord, the LORD Almighty.” (Isaiah 22:14; See also 2 Kings 24:20a“… he finally threw them out of his presence.” NET).

This is the fall of Jerusalem. The Babylonians killed many, but spared those taken into captivity (Revelation 13:10).

Closing Thoughts

… for this sin shall not be forgiven you, until you die. (Isaiah 22:14 CAB, LXE)

  1. The first division ends with the words above. They speak of lack of forgiveness and death. Although God had exercised extreme and extended patience with his people, it was time to move on. The next division is considered by many to be a messianic passage. What Israel failed to do for itself, God will do for them.
  2. God initially called his people through Abraham, Israel’s first father. Abraham was born in Ur (Genesis 15:7). The map shows that Ur lies to the southeast of Babylon. Haran, where Abraham’s father had settled on his way to Canaan, lies to the northwest (Genesis 11:31). Babylon lies in the middle.

    Notice how God sent his people back to their point of origin. It’s as though he were saying, “Let’s start this all over again.”

  3. The captivity marks God’s second great judgmental destruction.  The first was the flood in Noah’s day. That flood took humanity back to its beginnings. By choosing a special people, God limited the scope of his second judgment. But he took those people back to the beginning, as well.
  4. Isaiah prophesies a third and final judgment (Isaiah 24). This last judgment will be the final judgment of the entire world.
  5. Between the record of the second and third judgments, that of Israel God’s special people (Isaiah 22:1-14) and the judgment of the whole world (Isaiah 24), God speaks of his answer to the sinfulness of all people. He shall appoint the one who holds “the key to the house of David,” (Isaiah 22:22).

II. Shebna and Eliakim during Hezekiah’s Reign–To Be Continued

Idumea and Kedar: Isaiah Devotional Journal 41

Simultaneously posted at: Idumea and Kedar: Isaiah Devotional Journal 41 – justonesmallvoice.com

Isaiah 21     Link to LXE Modernized

The Vision of Idumea and God’s Message to Arabia: Isaiah 21:11-17

Idumea was located to the south of Judea, south of the Dead Sea. It had been established by the Edomites, descendants of Jacob’s brother Esau (Genesis 32:8). It is also known as Seir, founded by the sons of Hor before Esau (Genesis 36:20-21).

All these place names refer to the same geographical area. Mt Hor is not identical to Mt Seir; these are distinct place names in Edom, or Idumea (LXX). Masoretic translations use the name Dumah for this same area. (Confused?)

This map shows the interesting feature of Judea’s location in the center of the area of interest to the Assyrian’s invading armies. Assyria attacked Damascus and Samaria from the north and Idumea (Edom) from the south. 2 Kings 18-19 records how God spared Jerusalem from the Assyrians, while nations surrounding them fell.

The details of Isaiah 21 continue to be difficult to decipher. One question from Isaiah 21:11-12 is: Does Idumea actually fall? Isaiah warns of trouble in Idumea, but the two verses are not historically specific. God’s “Oracle Concerning Arabia” is very specific.

“For thus the Lord said to me, ‘Within a year, according to the years of a hired worker, all the glory of Kedar will come to an end.'” (Isaiah 21:16 ESV)

Kedar is located in the Arabian desert. The sons of Ishamel (Isaac’s brother from Abraham’s concubine) established it (Genesis 25:13).

Difficulties: The map of the Assyrian Empire reveals that the Assyrians did not conquer the Arabian Peninsula. Many maps I located show the same finding. However, the neo-Babylonian Empire did include Kedar, according to maps. Remember, it was the neo-Babylonians who led Judea into captivity.

However, Isaiah 21:16 states that Kedar would be overrun within a year of Isaiah’s prophesying. (Or, could it be one year from the time of fulfillment of the previous prophecies?) The difficulty with this is that neo-Babylonia became a superpower about 100 years after Isaiah.

Another possibility is that locations and maps are approximate. Perhaps Assyria did attack and overcome Kedar and Tema after all.

Main Point: The main point of Isaiah 21 is that God is not pleased. Babylon will fall, Idumea is in grave danger, and Kedar will endure great suffering and death. But God is always eager for people everywhere to repent and trust in him who is able to keep them safe.

Your Neighbors Can’t Help 21:1-10: Isaiah Devotional Journal 40

By Christina Wilson on 

Your Neighbors Can’t Help You

The Bible records Israel’s attempts at making alliances with various neighbors from time to time (Isaiah 7:1-917:3). These neighbors also made alliances among themselves (Isaiah 19:4-6). Even the southern kingdom of Judah made an ill-fated alliance with Egypt for help when the Assyrians arrived with ill intent at their doorstep (Isaiah 30:1-72 Kings 18:20-21). But Judah had previously allied itself with that same Assyria, when the empire was in its infancy (2 Kings 16:7-9). The point of Isaiah 21-23 is that your neighbors can’t help you; only God can.

The one thing God has always been after in creation is relationship with his people. We see this when he walked in the cool of the garden where he had placed the first man and woman (Genesis 3:8). We see God’s desire for fellowship again in Christ’s action of opening the veil (Hebrews 10:19-22). Isaiah also develops this theme explicitly in Isaiah 31:1. But in these oracles against the nations (13-23), as they are called, Isaiah demonstrates, rather than explain, the futility of looking anywhere but to the Lord.

And, if anyone doubts this, Isaiah continues in chapter 24 to prophesy the destruction of the whole world. In other words, there will be nowhere to hide. The choices will narrow to two: God or nothing; God or destruction.

One of the defining characteristics about the modern world, especially in America during my lifetime, is the growing irrelevance of God in the popular expressions of our culture, such as schools, government, and media. There are countless places in today’s world to hide  from the face of God. There are countless avenues of seeming help that do not involve a confrontation with God. We have many “neighbors” we can turn to. However, these chapters of Isaiah bring out the futility of this approach.

Practical Considerations

The word most often used to describe Isaiah 21 is “obscure.” Why is Isaiah 21 considered to be obscure?

First, who was the big superpower in Isaiah’s lifetime? Remember he lived during the reign of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah. During the reign of Ahaz, Syria was the threat (Isaiah 7:1-9). But Hezekiah ruled for thirty years. During his days, Assyria became the hostile superpower of the entire region.

God used Assyria to punish the wickedness of Israel, Judah, and the surrounding nations. Assyria is the mighty army so often described throughout these chapters (for example, Isaiah 8:7-8).

But second, Babylon appears to be the subject of Isaiah 21:1-10. Verse 2 indicates that it will be the Medes and the Persians who attack and overcome Babylon, as in Isaiah 13. However, Isaiah 20 and then again Isaiah 21:11-17 appear to be describing  the Assyrian invasion again. In other words, Isaiah’s prophesies appear to be out of order.

Further Complications


Complicating this is the long history of this area. At times Babylon had ascendancy over Assyria; at other times it was the other way round. Isaiah prophesied from 742 BCE to 686 BCE. The Babylonian captivity of Judah began in 586BCE. Although Isaiah mentions the fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians (Isaiah 39:6-7), the bulk of his message concerned an earlier time. The Medo-Persians overcame Babylon while the Israelites were in captivity there. Therefore, if Isaiah 21:1-10 concerns this time frame, it would appear to be sorely out of context, not chronologically grouped.

However, even though the Neo-Babylonians devoured the Assyrian empire along with Jerusalem, prior to this event, the Assyrians overcame Babylon in 729 BCE. This fell within the earlier period of Isaiah’s prophecies.

Therefore, Isaiah 21:1-10 could possibly be predicting this earlier fall of Babylon to the Assyrians, rather than the later fall to the Persians. But then, what do we make of Isaiah 21:2, which mentions the Elamites and Persians? These areas were not part of the Assyrian empire.

To complicate matters even further, how does Isaiah 21:10 fit in? It doesn’t seem to belong with the section beginning in verse 11 about Edom. But neither does it seem to fit in with the prior section, verses 1-9.

Therefore, biblical scholars label this chapter “obscure.” Some argue for the later time period. Others argue for the earlier.

So What Is the Everyday Devotional Reader to Do?

The devotional reader heads straight for the gold. God’s message is clear: Babylon is fallen.

… 9 Babylon is fallen, is fallen; and all her images and her idols have been crushed to the ground. 10 Hear, you that are left, and you that are in pain, hear what things I have heard of the Lord of hosts, which the God of Israel has declared to us. (CAB, LXE)

If ever anyone even thought of relying upon Babylon for anything, they had better not. Babylon is not worthy of trust–only the Lord is.


This post also appears at: Devotional for Chapters 21-23: ISAIAH DEVOTIONAL JOURNAL 39 – justonesmallvoice.com

By Christina Wilson on 

Isaiah 21-23     Link to LXE Modernized


Is God a bully? Does he say, “Do it my way, or else I will beat you up?” In a sense, that is correct. If all one had of Isaiah were chapters 21-23, a casual reader might think God was a bully insisting on his own way.

Yes, indeed, God is sovereign. He will have his way. He insists that come the end, he alone will be exalted. As for being a bully, does a bully bend over backward calling people to change their allegiance from worshiping the enemy to following him? Does a bully incarnate and die on a cross to pay the cost of allegiance owed by all people? Do tyrants sacrifice themselves to bring blessing to others?

To the unsaved, God’s ways make no sense at all. In the Old Testament, God sends (or allows) calamity after calamity from mightier empires to fall upon Israel itself and the nations surrounding Israel. These devastations terrify. How can this possibly be a God of love?

Calling for Repentance

But God’s purpose has always been to call forth repentance. Even the mostly calamitous chapters from 21-24 provide this key.

Isaiah 22:11 And you procured to yourselves water between the two walls within the ancient pool; but you looked not to Him that made it from the beginning, and regarded not Him that created it. 12 And the Lord, the Lord of hosts, called in that day for weeping, and lamentation, and baldness, and for girding with sackcloth; 13 but they engaged in joy and gladness, slaying calves, and killing sheep, so as to eat flesh, and drink wine; saying, Let us eat and drink; for tomorrow we die. 14 And these things are revealed in the ears of the Lord of hosts; for this sin shall not be forgiven you, until you die. (CAB)

More Than Isaiah

Many who lived in Isaiah’s time perhaps heard no other prophet. We today have the entire Scripture, both Old and New Testaments. Fortunately, some passages explicitly explain God’s ways. One example is Psalm 107.

Psalm 107:Then they cried to the Lord in their affliction, and He delivered them out of their distresses… For He satisfies the empty soul, and fills the hungry soul with good things… 11 because they rebelled against the words of God, and provoked the counsel of the Most High. 12 So their heart was brought low with troubles; they were weak, and there was no helper. 13 Then they cried to the Lord in their affliction, and He saved them out of their distresses. 14 And He brought them out of darkness and the shadow of death, and broke their chains in pieces… 28 Then they cry to the Lord in their affliction, and He brings them out of their distresses… 43 Who is wise, and will observe these things, and understand the mercies of the Lord? (CAB)

Lessons to Learn from the Evil That God Allows

I. Yes, God allows evil.

The human suffering predicted in chapters 21 to 23 are difficult to read. Unsaved people hold this seeming harshness of God against him. A saved person–that is, one who has repented, received God’s mercy, and switched their allegiance–takes time to prayerfully pause and consider these chapters in the light of God’s larger plan of hope and salvation for the whole world.

II. Why does God allow evil?

First, the evil that will befall the nations comes from another nation. God did not create Assyria’s evil, murderous heart. He just didn’t stop them.

Second, and more importantly, God allows evil and human suffering in order to bring people to repentance to himself. He is calling people to change their allegiance and return to him.

Isaiah prophesied that these things would occur before they occurred. He did this in order to allow Israel and the nations time to repent. Another portion of Scripture enlarges upon this. That book is Jonah. In it, God explains the “Why?” behind prophesy. God sent Jonah to warn the Assyrian city of Nineveh that they were about to be punished. They listened, repented, and God spared them. (A century later, however, Nineveh did fall to the Medes.) God’s motive always is to bring people to repentance (1 Kings 8:47-51Job 42:6Psalm 78:34).

III. What’s the Big Deal About Repentance?

1. First, God is good. No matter how harsh God’s ways may seem, the ways of the wicked are far, far harsher. To understand God’s goodness, read, for example, the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:1-17). If all the world practiced these, how few would our collective troubles be!

2. On the other hand, the ways of God’s enemy, Satan, are twisted and foul. He covets his own power (Luke 4:5-7), lies, deceives, and seeks to kill (John 8:44). God will destroy Satan in the end (Isaiah 27:1Revelation 20:210). Unfortunately, those who have given their allegiance to Satan will go down with him. This is why God wants people to repent. He desires that no one should perish (Ezekiel 18:23).

3. In short, God blesses those who give their allegiance to him (Psalm 1:1-62:12). God wants everyone to repent in order to receive his blessing (1 Timothy 2:42 Peter 3:9; and Matthew 23:37).

To Be Continued: Summary of Chapters 21-23

Concerning Egypt Part Two: Isaiah Devotional Journal 38

By Christina Wilson on 

Simultaneously published at Concerning Egypt Part Two: Isaiah Devotional Journal 38 – justonesmallvoice.com

Isaiah 19-20     Link to LXE Modernized

Bookends for “In That Day”

Isaiah 19:1-15 and Isaiah 20:1-6 are like bookends for the section in between. That section, Isaiah 19:16-25, contrasts sharply with the bookends on both sides. Six times Isaiah states, “in that day,” in the middle section.

A Bridge

The first of these six segments is like a bridge from the concrete world of military and national powers to the spiritual world of connectedness in the Lord.

  • The content of Isaiah 19:16-17 matches the content of the two bookends.
  • The structure (“in that day”) of these same verses matches the unusual content of the enclosed portion, Isaiah 19:16-25.
The Concrete World Contrasts with the Spiritual

In the concrete, physical world, Assyria will sorely defeat and shame Egypt and Ethiopia (Cush). In the spiritual world, somewhere, sometime (“in that day”), God the Lord will unite Egypt, Israel, and Assyria in blessing, good health, and unity. The question is, When does this blessing and unity occur? When, exactly, is “that day”?

“In That Day”

Isaiah uses the phrase “in that day” for the first time in Isaiah 2:11.

11 For the eyes of the Lord are high, but man is low; and the haughtiness of men shall be brought low, and the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day. (CAB, LXE)

If we consider the context for verse 11 as being the entire second chapter, then Isaiah 2:2-4 matches in tenor and tone Isaiah 19:16-25. Both passages describe a time of blessing and unity.

“In the Last Days”

I. The Gospel Period

Isaiah introduces chapter 2 with the phrase, “Now it shall come to pass in the last days.” However, “last days” may or may not be identical with “that day.”  As previously stated, the portion of the text from Isaiah 2:2-4 sounds very much like Isaiah 19:16-25.

For in the last days the mountain of the Lord shall be glorious, and the house of God shall be on the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall come to it.

Isaiah 2:2 is referenced in the gospel portions of the New Testament (Luke 24:47, ESV).

So, “last days” includes the period after Christ’s first advent, the gospel period, the evangelization of the world. That is where we are right now. Because the content clearly correlates well, that would also be the period of time Isaiah 19:18-25 refers to.

II. Isaiah 2:5-8

It seems that in these four verses, Isaiah is no longer in the “last days”, but in his own present. He describes in these verses the conditions of Israel, the northern kingdom, right then.

III. Isaiah 2:9-21

This section matches in tenor and tone Revelation 6:15-17. In fact, Revelation 6:15 quotes Isaiah 2:19 and 21. This scene as described truly is a “last day.” It falls at the close of human history, just as the final judgment draws near.

So Where Do We Place Isaiah 2:11?

Plain English indicates that the phrase “in that day” in Isaiah 2:11 refers to the nearer context rather than the further. That is, it looks back to the time of wrath that began in Isaiah 2:9.

Therefore, we must conclude that sometimes the phrase “in that day” does not have a specific, exact meaning, but one that is context-based. So, the question becomes, what is the context of the passage in Isaiah 19:18-25? Clearly, the context indicates unity and blessing. Fulfillment of the prophecy of unity began to occur as soon as Philip jumped into the carriage with the Ethiopian eunuch (Acts 8:26-39) and Paul began preaching his message of reconciliation in Christ (see, for example, Ephesians 2:14-22 and 3:4-10).

Further Examples of “In That Day”

I. Isaiah 4:2-6 

Isaiah 4:2-6 opens with “In that day, the Branch of the Lord will be beautiful and glorious, …” This section opens suddenly, abruptly, with no transition from the previous section. That section describes the religious shortcomings of Judah’s women in his day.

So, in this context, Isaiah does seem to have a particular day or season in mind for the phrase, “in that day.” He means the day of Messiah, the Branch. There again, the advent of Christ introduced the gospel era.

Notice, it is the content of the context that determines Isaiah’s meaning from one place to another.

II. Isaiah 5:30

The very next example of “in that day” confirms the conclusion of the prior section. All of Isaiah 5 describes a period of God’s judgment against his own people in the time period in which Isaiah lived. Context reveals that “in that day” refers to the same period of time in which all the judgments occur.

III. Chapter Seven

In chapter seven, Isaiah contains four rapid fire expressions of “in that day” (Isaiah 7:182021, and 23). Each of these refers to the immediately prior context of Isaiah 7:17, the attack and invasion of the Assyrians.

Why Does the “When” in Isaiah 19 Matter?

Why do I sit here, searching through my concordance, reading Scripture far and wide, possibly “nit-picking” over the meanings of words? It is because words matter. Scripture matters. God’s intended meaning matters.

Is the Christian Era Spiritual or Concrete?

Is the Christian era spiritual or concrete? This is an important decision in biblical interpretation. The answer belongs to the realm of biblical presuppositions. Presuppositions describe the way a reader thinks before approaching a text. They include assumptions, beliefs, and preferences every reader carries with them inside their heart of faith. For my own biblical presuppositions, please see Isaiah: A Personal Devotional Journal–My Biblical Presuppositions.

The word “spiritual,” as I use it, refers to things of the Spirit. “Spiritual” has no bearing upon whether something is real or not. The Spirit of God is as real as real can be. But obviously, the Spirit is spirit. Spirit is not a concrete, physical reality. But it is in many ways more real than physical reality.

 John 4:23 But the hour is coming, and is now here, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father is seeking such people to worship him. 24 God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.” (ESV)

1 Corinthians 2:11 For who knows a person’s thoughts except the spirit of that person, which is in him? So also no one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God. 12 Now we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might understand the things freely given us by God. 13 And we impart this in words not taught by human wisdom but taught by the Spirit, interpreting spiritual truths to those who are spiritual. 14 The natural person does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are folly to him, and he is not able to understand them because they are spiritually discerned. (ESV)

Both Jesus and Paul in the quotations above are describing spiritual realities. How can a “spiritual” understanding of spiritual things be considered a misunderstanding? And yet, one often hears Christians accusing other Christians of “spiritualizing Scripture”, as they interpret certain verses according to spiritual realities rather than physical.

Is “In That Day” in Isaiah 19 Spiritual or Concrete?

The truth is that some Christians highly desire and are made joyful in the spiritual interpretation (having to do with the Spirit of God and his spiritual kingdom on earth) of certain Old Testament prophecies, such as Isaiah 19:18-25. Other Christians highly desire a “concrete” fulfillment of the same prophecies. By “concrete” I mean one which has a physical manifestation.

For example, some Christians respond with great joy when a Messianic Jew, a Coptic Christian from Egypt, and a former Muslim from Mosul, sit in the same congregation together on a Sunday morning to worship the Lord. (Or, perhaps, they sit in different congregations located worlds apart, but they worship in one Spirit, brothers and sisters in Christ nonetheless.) For these Christians, Isaiah 19:18-25 and Isaiah 4:2-6 have already been gloriously fulfilled.

Other Christians wait for the fulfillment of these Isaianic passages until some future time when there will be concrete countries matching their description. During those days, a physical Christ will sit in a physical temple in a physical Jerusalem and rule.

In other words, some Christians envision the PRESENT and the END as the two great movements remaining in history. Other Christians envision the PRESENT, a middle, concrete kingdom of Christ they call the MILLENNIUM, and then the END. For those who may not already know, I am of the former group.

Are these distinctions worth fighting about? Not really. They do, however, influence how one reads Scripture.

Why Do One’s Presuppositions Matter?

Those who claim that “in that day” in passages such as Isaiah 4:2-6 and Isaiah 19:18-25 refer to an as-yet-future time for Christ to reign physically on earth, before the last days of judgment and new creation, rob the present moment of its fulfillment of the blessings in Christ Isaiah presents. They rob us, the church down through the ages. The reign of Christ is now. His kingdom on earth is now. The Holy Spirit has been given now. We have these blessings in Christ now.

CONCLUSION: Ultimately, which camp one falls into is a matter of worldview: Is Christ and his kingdom in this present era about concrete realities or spiritual realities? Each reader must decide for themselves how they will answer the question of “When?” in this passage in Isaiah.


By Christina Wilson on  Simultaneously published at Concerning Egypt “In That Day”: Isaiah Devotional Journal 37 – justonesmallvoice.com

Isaiah 19    Link to LXE Modernized

From Obscurity to Clarity

God’s message to Cush in Isaiah 18 may seem obscure to today’s readers. But God’s message to Egypt is crystal clear. Remember that Cush dominated Egypt in the 25th dynasty at this time in history (1). Isaiah’s use of the term “Egypt” might very well include Cush.

Spiritual Analogy: Confession–I love a car ride or a train ride where I get to sit up high and get a good view of anonymous people’s backyards. And, the longer the ride, the better. Weird maybe, but that’s me. Isaiah 19:1-15 is like a tour of people’s backyards, at a reasonable speed, like in a car on a two lane rural road, or on a train traveling a large distance.

What Does Isaiah See for Egypt?

  • Egypt’s idols will be worthless – 1
  • civil disputes will multiply – 2
  • Egyptians will fear and consult their idols and spiritists – 3
  • God will assign them cruel lords and kings – 4
  • a terrible drought will dry up the sea and the Nile – 5
  • the canals will stink and water plants will rot – 6
  • plants by the river’s banks will die and dust storms will blow away their agriculture – 7
  • fishermen of the Nile will groan and cry – 8
  • weavers of flax into linen will lose hope – 9
  • weavers of cloth will be broken and employees will be sad – 10

What About Egypt’s Wise People? Can They Help?

  • Scripture uses strong language to describe the “wise men” of Zoan (Tanis) who are really “fools” – 11
  • They give the king wrong advice contrary to what the Lord has planned (i.e., peace when there is no peace) – 12
  • The leaders of Zoan and Memphis, another major city, acted on false reports that led the nation the wrong way – 13
  • The Lord did this. He confused the leaders. They wander around like sick, drunk people. They have no clue where they are – 14
  • It will be total chaos which no one can solve – 15

“In That Day” — What Day?

Spiritual Analogy: When the tour train arrives at Isaiah 20:16 forward, it comes to a full station stop. Serious explorers debark. Some rent a room for the night. Without warning, Isaiah just took a trip in his time machine and plopped everyone down into a different era. After glancing at the the landscape around them, the tourists turn to ask one another, not, “Where are we?” (they are still in Egypt), but, “When are we?”

Signs Signaling a Change
  • “In that day” – 16
  • “In that day” – 18
  • “In that day” – 19
  • “… in that day” – 21
  • “In that day” – 23
  • “In that day” – 24

And so we ask, what day is this? Let us check our bearings, look around us for the big picture, and see what we can find.

First, I have a dispensational study Bible open in front of me. The study notes wrongly assert that in verse 16 and forward, “in that day” refers to the so-called “millennial” rule of Christ. Nothing in the text speaks of a “millennium.” That is a term Isaiah does not use. To so label this passage is reading into the text.

Second, has Isaiah already used this phrase in what we’ve studied so far? If so, what light can Isaiah shed upon Isaiah?

Uses of “That Day” in Isaiah

The phrase “that day” occurs 47 times in the book of Isaiah.

1-With reference to a time previously specified in the same context.

1. Some occurrences in their contexts make reference to a time period previously specified in the text. For example, Isaiah 2:12-22 describes a time of judgment. “In that day” occurs in Isaiah 2:17 and 20. These refer back in context to that specific time period Isaiah has been describing. This time frame appears to be defined in verse 12 as the last day.

Important: Note that although the event being described is future (in this case a day of final judgment), the introduction of it as a topic occurs in context prior to the first occurrence of the phrase “in that day.” A paraphrase would be, In the day that I have just been describing… In other words, it functions in its context as a grammatical marker, rather than as a specific day.

Other examples of the phrase grammatically pointing back to a prior event already specified in the immediate context are found in Isaiah 17:47, and 9Isaiah 17:1-3 describe what will happen to the nation of Syria. Immediately after these verses, verse 4 opens with, “And in that day, the glory of Jacob will be brought low…” Isaiah is not introducing here a new topic with its own time frame. Rather, he indicates that what will happen to Jacob will happen in the same day as what he just described will happen to Syria. In other words, these events will happen at the same time. Verses 7 and 9 are similar.

2. The use of “in that day” in Isaiah 19:16 appears to fall into this category. Verses 1-15 speak of a time of chaos and calamity for Egypt. Verse 16 speaks of an Egyptian response in keeping with those events. Verses 12 and 14 assign responsibility for Egypt’s troubles to the “Lord of hosts.” Verses 16 names the “Lord of hosts” as the one whom Egypt fears. Verse 17 extends that fear to Judah, the nation who represents the “Lord of hosts.”

3. Therefore, verses 16 and 17 most likely should be grouped with verses 1-15, because they speak of the same time period of devastation in Egypt’s history.

But, Then Comes Verse 18

Isaiah 19:18 In that day there will be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan and swear allegiance to the LORD of hosts. One of these will be called the City of Destruction. (ESV)

Does verse 18 signal the same time frame as the previous section, verses 1 to 17? Or, is this a totally different “day”? Why do we ask?

First, we ask because the subject from Isaiah 19:18 to the end of the chapter expresses a sudden and remarkable change. Egypt in biblical history served pagan gods. Isaiah 19:1 even speaks of their idols. But, Isaiah 19:18-22 describes an Egypt that has turned and now worships the Lord.

Isaiah 19:21 And the LORD will make himself known to the Egyptians, and the Egyptians will know the LORD in that day and worship with sacrifice and offering, and they will make vows to the LORD and perform them. (ESV)

Verse 22 sheds light on how we should view this latter portion of the chapter. Isaiah interprets Isaiah for us.

22 And the LORD will strike Egypt, striking and healing, and they will return to the LORD, and he will listen to their pleas for mercy and heal them.

That is, the Lord is behind everything in this chapter. First he strikes Egypt, then he heals them. He strikes, Egypt turns to the Lord and pleads for mercy (like Nineveh in the book of Jonah), the Lord listens, and he heals them.

Second, this change is remarkable. The travesties of the first portion of the chapter seem historical. They could easily fit a time period not too much later than when Isaiah prophesied. But Old Testament history doesn’t record a time when the pagan nations surrounding Israel repented and turned to the Lord.

Third, from a Christian point of view, this is wonderful, happy news. It causes us to rejoice. In verses 23-25, the good news gets even better. The great bully of both Egypt and Israel, Assyria, is included in God’s blessing.

 Isaiah 19:23 In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria, and Assyria will come into Egypt, and Egypt into Assyria, and the Egyptians will worship with the Assyrians. 24 In that day Israel will be the third with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the earth, 25 whom the LORD of hosts has blessed, saying, “Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel my inheritance.” (ESV)

But what is going on? When does this happen? Slowly, Isaiah has transitioned us from what seems solidly historical to something that appears to be like “pie in the sky,” i.e., impossibly good news, like heaven.

Spiritual Analogy: This is why the imaginary train has pulled into the station and come to a full stop. The travelers are still scratching their heads. They go back and reexamine that phrase, “in that day.” They ask, Is there a particular, special day in Isaiah?

2-With Reference to a Special Day of the Lord

To Be Continued…


1 “The 25th dynasty was a line of pharaohs who originated in the Kingdom of Kush, located in present-day northern Sudan and Upper Egypt. Most of this dynasty’s kings saw Napata as their spiritual homeland. They reigned in part or all of Ancient Egypt from 747–656 BC.” Wikipedia 

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