Christ in the Psalms: Contents

I. Introduction

1. Introducing Psalms 2 – A Second Go Round … Link

2. Pursue Your Hunger … Link

3. God Is Willing to Talk to You … Link

4. Jesus Evangelizes a Sinful Woman … Link

5. Jesus Evangelizes a Rabbi … Link

6. The Holy Spirit in the Reader … Link

7. Which Bible Should I Use? … Link

8. Psalms as Prayers of Christ … Link

9. Presuppositions–Where I’m Coming From … Link

II. Specific Psalms

Psalm 132 Intercession and Divine Speech … Link

Psalm 132 Concrete-Literal and Spiritual-Literal … Link

Psalm 116:1-9 (114 LXX) … Link

Psalm 116 Christ Loves the Father … Link 

Psalm 116:11 All Mankind Are Liars … Link

Psalm 88 A Tenebrae Psalm … Link  

Psalm 89 History to the Foot of the Cross … Link  

Psalm 89 A Short Devotional … Link

Psalms 18 and 118 Up from the Grave He Arose! Link  

Psalm 18 Papa Roars and Rescues … Link 

Psalm 116:11 All Mankind Are Liars … Link

Psalm 1: Headwater to the Psalter … Link    

Psalm 1: God’s Instruction Freely Given … Link         

Psalm 2: God’s Son the King … Link   

Psalm 3: Is God Schizophrenic? … Link     

III. Bibliographies

Bibliography of Works Cited

Annotated Bibliography

Link to the First Article of This Series

Link to Prior Series on Psalms

Psalm 3: Is God Schizophrenic?

James J. Tissot, ‘David in the Wilderness of Ziph’ (1896-1902) gouache on board, Jewish Museum, New York.

Is God schizophrenic? Does he have multiple personalities? Psalms 1 and 2 speak of endless, magnificent blessings for the righteous man and for the King, God’s Son, while in Psalm 3 we see an ardent follower of the Lord, who by definition is righteous (Psalm 1:1-3), surrounded by countless foes in a seemingly hopeless situation (vs. 2). Where are God’s promises now? How can a “blessed” God-follower be having such a hard time?

Gladly for us the Bible is literature, as well as being inspired. All of us can take the rules of common speech we have learned since infancy and apply them towards understanding what God has written for our instruction. God wants the seeker to understand him (Proverbs 1:20-21).

One of the first facets of Psalm 3 lying in plain sight is the change of voice from that of the prior two: “I…I…I…me…my.” Psalm 3 is strongly first person, and the person speaking is neither God nor the glorified Son, as in Psalm 2, nor a neutral narrator, as in Psalm 1. Unlike Psalm 3, Psalms 1 and 2 present the overview to the Psalter, as demonstrated in the two prior posts, the long distance, high-in-the-sky, end-of-the-movie point of view. While Psalms 1 and 2 present the outcome of life as reported from God’s eternal point of view, the human speaker in Psalm 3 has his feet on the ground, running, as it were, heavily pursued by his multitude of enemies. Again, Psalms 1 and 2 are a summary view of the entire story, while Psalm 3 is a snapshot view of a certain moment of time in the psalmist’s life.

Who then is the psalmist?

  1. Historically, the superscription applies Psalm 3 to King David, when he was fleeing the persecution of his wicked son Absalom (2Sa 15:13-17, 29).
  2. In a broadly poetic, generic sense, the speaker is every righteous man and every righteous woman.
  3. Specifically, especially as the believing reader becomes familiar with the ways of the Psalter and the Bible as a whole, the speaker is the righteous man of Psalm 1 and the King, God’s Son, of Psalm 2. (See footnote 1.) What? This is a surprise! “But I thought … blessed!” Yes, until we look more closely at Psalm 2.

1 Why do the nations rage and the peoples plot in vain?
2 The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD and against his Anointed, saying,
3 “Let us burst their bonds apart and cast away their cords from us.” (Psalm 2:1-3)

As a whole, Psalm 2 makes so light of the efficacy of the enemies of God–verse 9 describes them as mere, broken pottery–that their role as antagonists diminishes within the bounds of Psalm 2. Their end is destruction, but … their beginning is persecution of the Lord’s Anointed. Psalm 3 gives the reader a view of what that persecution looks like from the vantage of the Lord’s Anointed, Messiah on earth, incarnated, human.

From the point of view of Messiah in real time, God-as-man, the enemies look multitudinous: 1) the word “many” is repeated three times in verses 1 and 2, 2) the enemies are numbered as “many thousands of people who have set themselves against me all around,” in verse 6, and 3) the psalmist labels them as “all my enemies” in verse 7.  Clearly, the ground level view is very different than the heavenly.

What can we learn from Psalm 3?

Takeaways:

1. God is love. It was God’s love that sent his Son into this battleground.  Romans 8:32 He who did not spare his own Son but gave him up for us all, how will he not also with him graciously give us all things? (Romans 8:32; see also John 3:16

2. A life of faith is a life of warfare. John 16:33 I have said these things to you, that in me you may have peace. In the world you will have tribulation. But take heart; I have overcome the world.”

3. Faith consistently cries out to the Lord. 

4 I cried aloud to the LORD, and he answered me from his holy hill. Selah

7a Arise, O LORD! Save me, O my God! …

4. Faith lives in the final victory as it struggles through the conflicts of the moments.

3 But you, O LORD, are a shield about me, my glory, and the lifter of my head.

5 I lay down and slept; I woke again, for the LORD sustained me.
6 I will not be afraid of many thousands of people who have set themselves against me all around.

7b … For you strike all my enemies on the cheek; you break the teeth of the wicked.

5. The final victory of faith is eternal blessing. Psalm 3:8 Salvation belongs to the LORD; your blessing be on your people! Selah

As believers during the various seasons of our lives, we will experience security in the Lord, blessedness, battle, hardship, the attacks of our enemies (which may be the spiritual enemies of lust, anger, addiction, and so forth), crying for help, praise, thanksgiving, and finally, victory in Christ. We can each of us ask where we are in this cyclic continuum. If you are found by Christ still believing in him when you die, then you are a victor. Faith is the victory by which we overcome the world.  (1 John 5:4)

 

Sidebar Tidbit: Notice how the wicked (see footnote 2) are compared to chaff in Psalm 1:4, pieces of broken pottery in Psalm 2:9, and broken teeth in Psalm 3:7. 

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1 With reference to Acts 2:30, Matthew Bates writes, “Third, Peter affirms that David, ‘was a prophet’ (2:30), which suggests that the emphasis is on David’s future-oriented words not on David’s own past experiences as a righteous sufferer, making it even more unlikely that we are invited to see David as speaking for himself as a ‘type’ of the future Christ.” (Bates, Matthew. The Birth of the Trinity. Oxford University Press. Oxford: 2016, 154.) The same line of reasoning may be applied to this psalm as well. Jesus’ apostles, such as Peter, were so taken up with the person and resurrection of Christ that David qua David had little significance for them. (So if you don’t find yourself excited about King David, that’s okay–be excited about Christ!)

2 Within the context of these psalms, the wicked are those who willfully and consciously oppose God, oppose his Anointed Son the King, and oppose God’s good way.

 

 

 

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Psalm 2: Blessings to the King, an Apology (Apologia)

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Whereas Psalm 1 blesses the Lord’s generic, faithful follower (Footnote 1), Psalm 2 blesses an identified person–God’s Son the King. Because God guards the path of the righteous (1:6) and rejects those who reject him (1:1, 4-6), the reader must rightfully infer that the King, who receives God’s greatest blessing, is righteous and adheres very closely to God’s way. What does Psalm 2 tell us about this King?

  1. Verse 2: He is called God’s “Anointed One (Messiah),” and is named alongside God the LORD (Israel’s God, who is named Yahweh. See Genesis 2:4 and Exodus 3:15). Takeaway: Messiah is introduced in Psalm 2, at the very front of the Psalter.
  2. Verse 3a: The Messiah is fully on God’s team. (When the Pharisees accused Jesus of serving Beelzebul, the prince of demons, they were gravely mistaken. See Matthew 12:23-28.)
  3. Verses 1-3: The nations of the world take a united stand against God and his Anointed. The world perceives Messiah as its enemy (Messiah is translated “Christ” in the Septuagint (LXX), which is the Greek version of the Old Testament.) The Septuagint asks its readers to pause and think about this awhile. (See 1 John 2:15.)
  4. Verse 3: Even in the act of rebelling against the Lord and his Anointed, the kings of the world implicitly and vocally acknowledge that God is their ruler. “They say, ‘Let’s tear off the shackles they’ve put on us! Let’s free ourselves from their ropes!'” (Psalm 2:3 NET) Takeaway: What God gives as blessing–the rule of his Anointed One, his Messiah–the world perceives as bondage. Whose perspective is distorted? God’s? or the world’s? Before replying, consider the biblical portrait of Messiah given in the Gospel accounts–the life, words, actions, and crucifixion of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom the gospel writers, and Pilot the Roman governor, identify as Israel’s king. (John 19:19-22.)
  5. Verse 5: God himself, in direct speech, endorses his King by proclaiming that he personally installed him on Zion, his holy hill.
  6. Verses 7-9: The King in direct speech repeats God’s decree.
    1. Verse 7: The King reports that God announced his relationship with his King. The King is God’s Son, and God is the King’s Father.
    2. Verse 8: God encourages the King to request of him all the nations of earth as his inheritance, and he will do it.
    3. Verse 9: The King’s rule over the nations will be absolute, powerful, and punitive.
  7. Verses 10-12: The King permits repentance. The narrator of this dramatic, possibly choral, psalm encourages the worldly kings of the earth to stop their current course of rebellion and wisely to consider. They still have opportunity to serve the LORD God and to kiss the Son (verse 12). Judgment is not now, but future. His wrath is not yet realized and can be averted. Takeaway: The Son will bless all (even former enemies) who take refuge in him. (See Romans 5:10.)

Conclusion and Summary

While Psalm 1 speaks blessing upon God’s loyal followers and judgment upon his enemies, Psalm 2 speaks judgment upon his enemies and blessing upon all, including former enemies, who hide themselves in him. The tone is absolute, as it states the facts of life. There is no room for discussion, nor protest, nor exceptions. God speaks boldly and clearly as though to say, This is the way it is, folks. You can take it or leave it, and I God encourage you to take my offer of peace and blessing through my King the Son. While Psalm 1 appears to be generic (Footnote 1), Psalm 2 is specific.

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1 Even though God’s blessing is to a class of people who are righteous, Scripture teaches that among the human race, “None is righteous, no not one,” (Romans 3:10; Psalm 14:1-3; 53:1-3). Therefore, the only righteous one remaining is God himself, and as concerns humanity, God the Son, Jesus Christ. Jesus became human for the very reason that he would become the righteous human sacrifice to pay the penalty for all people. Such is God’s love and his determination to bring his fallen people back to himself. In Christ God created a way where there had been no way. “I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.” (John 14:6.)

 

 

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Psalm 1: If You Eat All That Candy, You’ll Get Worms in Your Stomach

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My dad used to send me out trick-or-treating for Halloween, and then whenever he saw me eating some of my stash, he’d tell me I was going to get worms in my stomach. Go figure…

Wisdom cries aloud in the street, in the markets she raises her voice; 21 at the head of the noisy streets she cries out; at the entrance of the city gates she speaks: (Proverbs 1:20-21 ESV) 

Every culture teaches its own wisdom either for good or for evil, either freely or for pay. Parents come first to mind within the culture of homes. The American culture generally abounds with offers of wisdom for pay: secrets of obtaining wealth, secrets of losing weight, secrets of building confidence, and so forth. Then there are cultures of evil, which often require initiation rites to test the novice’s loyalty, to exact a payment, or to acquire incriminating evidence to hold over the initiate’s head as a threat if the person decides later to leave. Think fraternities or Oliver Twist or gangs Movies provide many examples of cultures of crime that exact payment of one sort or another from initiates. God’s culture is different than all these.

Within the Psalter and the Bible as a whole, God claims to be the creator, owner, and ruler of everything. The Psalter offers a culture of wisdom, God’s wisdom, for those desiring to join his team, as it were, or to place themselves under his protection. Psalm 1 teaches wisdom in much the same way as Proverbs 1:20-21, quoted above. There we learn that God’s wisdom exacts no initiation fee from the novice, it is offered to everyone, it is not secretive or hidden, it seeks to give to all, and it presents itself in places where it is likely to be found. In other words, in the body of psalms, God shares his wisdom freely with all. Psalm 1 states in the clearest language possible the simple wisdom of God, the beginning and end of all things human, and how to survive the final judgment.

Think of a mountain high in heaven and picture a spring of clear, cold, fresh, pure water bubbling up from God as its source. The water from the spring forms a stream which flows down the mountain giving water to everything it meets. This is the position of Psalm 1 at the head of the Psalter. It lays the foundation of the psalms and tells the final outcome. Everyone seeking God’s wisdom, the wisdom that leads to a prosperous and fruitful life, should begin here.

These are the principles of Psalm 1:

  1. God exists and is all-powerful.
  2. God is good and his path  leads to blessing.
  3. God is just and does not reward those who go against him.

Psalm 1 breathes out Proverbs 1:7–

 

Proverbs 1:7 The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge; fools despise wisdom and instruction. (ESV)

 

Psalm 1 is an invitation to enter into the presence of God, to drink deeply from his waters of instruction, and to travel the flow of his river to its final destination of happiness forever. God gives to all who come to him.

 

 

 

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Psalm 1: Headwater to the Psalter

San Andreas Fault. Photo by John Wiley.

There is a plain located on a fault line on the southwestern side of North America, where the Pacific Plate meets the North American Plate. These two plates slide past each other, the Pacific to the north, and the North American to the south. “For years the plates will be locked with no movement at all as they push against one another. Suddenly the built-up strain breaks the rock along the fault, and the plates slip a few feet all at once. The breaking rock sends out waves in all directions, and it is the waves that we feel as earthquakes.” (Lynch, see Bibliography)

A hill rises along the highway at the northwestern end of this plain which lies along the fault line. Visitors can walk up its short but steep incline to a view point and see the entire plain stretched out before them. It’s an exciting and breathtaking view, as various geological features can be noted. Such a view point is Psalm 1 at the head of the Psalter. Psalm 1 in six short verses sketches out the fault line between the blessedly happy righteous person, whom the Lord guards and protects for all eternity, and the wicked, whom the wind blows away like chaff and who ultimately perishes.

Psalm 1 describes real life in condensed form. As we live our lives, we see the righteous and the wicked side by side. Often they seem locked with no apparent movement as they push against one another. The righteous do not seem to be blessed, confer Psalms 22, 31, and 88 among many others, and the wicked apparently prosper, confer Psalms 37 and 73. Suddenly–for us, not for God–the built up strain causes breakage, as in an earthquake, slippage occurs, and the final outcomes for the righteous and the wicked are revealed. The righteous of earth continuously move toward God’s blessings, while the wicked move in the opposite direction. Psalm 1 describes the fault line between these two.

 

 

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Primer: How Do I Know That God Is Real?

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How do I know there is a God?

1. God gives us his word that he exists and is good.

…Because God says so. God speaks for himself. We can trust what he says, because he is God.

13 Then Moses said to God, “If I come to the people of Israel and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ what shall I say to them?” 14 God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM.” And he said, “Say this to the people of Israel, ‘I AM has sent me to you.'” (Exodus 3:13-14, ESV)

5 I am the LORD, and there is no other, besides me there is no God; I equip you, though you do not know me,
6 that people may know, from the rising of the sun and from the west, that there is none besides me; I am the LORD, and there is no other.
7 I form light and create darkness, I make well-being and create calamity, I am the LORD, who does all these things. (Isaiah 45:5-7, ESV)

For thus says the LORD, who created the heavens (he is God!), who formed the earth and made it (he established it; he did not create it empty, he formed it to be inhabited!): “I am the LORD, and there is no other. (Isaiah 45:18, ESV)

And he said to me, “It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. To the thirsty I will give from the spring of the water of life without payment. (Revelation 21:6, ESV)

2. God gives us his Holy Spirit so that we may know his word is true and meant for us.

…God backs up his word with himself. The Holy Spirit is God. The Holy Spirit is God reaching out to us.  God shows us he is real and his word is truth through special events in our life and by his keeping us company inside us. The Holy Spirit makes God’s word alive and real in our hearts. He shows us within our hearts that the Bible is God’s word and that it is true. The Holy Spirit shows each person that the words of God are meant for them. He helps each person believe and want God.

The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. (Genesis 1:2, ESV)

139:7 Where shall I go from your Spirit? Or where shall I flee from your presence? (Psalm 139:7, ESV)

But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you. (John 14:26, ESV)

Romans 5:5 and hope does not put us to shame, because God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who has been given to us. (Romans 5:5, ESV)

 

 

 

 

Psalm 116:11 All Mankind Are Liars

 

 

This post is excerpted and expanded from a prior post: Psalm 116: Christ Loves the Father. It promises to be technical. The substance of the article below demonstrates how the phrase, “All men are liars,” likely was spoken by Christ during his ecstasy, or passion, while hanging on the cross or at some time during the week before.

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Psalm 116:11 is a difficult verse.

Translation Comparison:

NAU Psalm 116:11 I said in my alarm, “All men are liars.”

NET Psalm 116:11 I rashly declared, “All men are liars.”

ESV Psalm 116:11 I said in my alarm, “All mankind are liars.”

LXE Psalm 116:11 And I said in mine amazement, Every man is a liar.

NIV Psalm 116:11 in my alarm I said, “Everyone is a liar.”

I said in my alarm, All mankind are liars.

There are two phrases in Psalm 116:11. The first speaks of alarm and the second of humanity as liars. This discussion will begin with the second phrase. The presupposition is that Psalm 116 speaks of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

All mankind are liars. Scripture teaches that Christ’s love for his Father surpasses the unworthiness of the people for whom Christ died. (See Romans 3:23; Psalm 14:1-3; and John 2:24-25.) When Jesus was tried, convicted, and hung on a cross, none came forward to speak on his behalf (Pilate’s wife did mention to her husband the nightmare she had experienced concerning him). There was no one to comfort him (Handel’s Messiah quoting Psalm 69:20). Because the human race, as represented by all who were gathered and by those who chose to stay away and avoid trouble, allowed and encouraged the great Creator’s crucifixion, they all in essence, denied his deity. To not receive Christ, to not acknowledge God’s love in Christ, is to lie. (Romans 1:18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth. 19 For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. 20 For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse. (Rom 1:18 ESV) In this sense, in the crucifixion of Christ, the crucifixion of deity, all humankind was deceived and lied about the true relationship between themselves and their Creator/Savior.

I said in my alarm… The word “alarm” in Hebrew can mean to be in a state of alarm or to hurry or perform some action consequent to a state of alarm. The Qal definition in Psalm 116:11 is “to be in alarm.” (BDB Hebrew Lexicon) From the Greek Septuagint, the translated word is “ecstasy,” which refers to a strong emotional state that is not normal, in the sense of not usual. We say that, “So-and-so is beside herself with such-and-such an emotion.” It can be an emotion of great terror, bewilderment, astonishment, or any such. As the word is most often used in Scripture, the focus is on the state of the person which such a strong emotion produces. Such a state is other than the usual state of the person. It is a state that is figuratively laid beside one’s usual state. (BDAG, 3rd edition, 245)

The New Testament’s use of the word “ecstasy” occurs when someone witnesses a powerful miracle that overrides physical laws of nature (Mark 5:42, where Jesus resurrected a dead girl; Luke 5:26, where Jesus healed the paralyzed man; Mark 16:8, where the women were beside themselves in astonishment upon meeting the angel in Christ’s tomb, who told them that Jesus had arisen from the dead). Any strong emotional state caused by extreme terror or amazement can be called an “ecstasy.” A second meaning for “ecstasy” is a trance (cf. Acts 22:17, Peter’s vision of the blanket filled with unclean foods). This second meaning does not seem applicable in Psalm 116:14.

Continuing with the meaning of strong emotion, often brought on by great fear, the Greek word “ecstasy” appears in the superscription of Psalm 31, which is Psalm 30 in the Septuagint. The English translation of the Septuagint reads, “For the end, a Psalm of David, an utterance of extreme fear,” or, εἰς τὸ τέλος ψαλμὸς τῷ Δαυιδ ἐκστάσεως in Greek. Jesus speaks Psalm 31:5 from the cross, “Into your hand I commit my spirit,” (Luke 23:46) and the whole psalm speaks of death and resurrection.

Further, Psalm 31:22a (30:22a LXX) reads in Brenton’s English translation, “But I said in my extreme fear [ἐγὼ δὲ εἶπα ἐν τῇ ἐκστάσει μου], I am cast out from the sight of thine eyes:…” A footnote gives the word “ecstasy” for the phrase “extreme fear.” The ESV for Psalm 31:22a reads, “I had said in my alarm, ‘I am cut off from your sight.'” How very much in essence like Psalm 22:1a this is, which nearly all acknowledge is messianic, since Christ spoke these words from the cross, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” Added to the context of the whole of Psalm 31, this particular verse adds to the evidence that the Greek word for “ecstasy” refers to the Passion of Christ.

Language usage provides yet another thread of evidence to the probable interpretation of the word “ecstasy” in reference to the Passion of Christ in Psalms 31 and 116. The English word “passion” derives from classical Latin “passiōn-” (OED). Applicable meanings fall under the categories of 1) “The sufferings of Jesus in the last days of his life, from the Last Supper to his death; the Crucifixion itself” (OED), 2) obsolete, “A suffering or affliction of any kind” (OED), 3) “any strong, controlling, or overpowering emotion, as desire, hate, fear, etc.; an intense feeling or impulse” (OED), and 4) “A fit, outburst, or state marked by or of strong excitement, agitation, or other intense emotion” (OED). These definitions are all similar to the definitions and context of the Greek “ecstasy,” “ἐκστάσει,” as used in Psalms 31 and 116.

While the Latin Vulgate Bible doesn’t use the Latin passiōn-“ in correspondence with the Greek for “ecstasy,” in Psalm 116, it does use “excessu meo (Psa 115:2 VULM, Vulgate with Morphology),” defined as, “departure; death; digression; departure from standard.” The meaning “departure from standard” corresponds very well with the sense of “ecstasy” as an emotional state that is not normal, as in not usual, and in other words, an emotional state that is laid alongside of the usual, as in the phrase, “so-and-so is beside herself ” with some named emotion. (See above, BDAG, 3rd edition, 245.) The other Latin meaning for “passiōn-“, which is “departure; death,” as mentioned above in this paragraph, unquestionably corresponds with Christ’s Passion.

The combination of evidences presented here point to the strong possibility that when Christ spoke the words, “All men are liars,” in Psalm 116:11, he did so at his Passion, at some point during the week leading up to and including his crucifixion. It should not be difficult to perceive that Christ the man would have experienced great fear or alarm (Hebrew) both before and while he was being crucified. For example, Scripture testifies to his sweating which resembled blood in the Garden as he prayed concerning the trial and crucifixion that lay just ahead (Luke 22:44). With the definition and sense of the Greek word translated as “ecstasy” in mind, we could read Psalm 116:11 as, “I said in my Passion, all men are liars.”

In summary and conclusion, both of the phrases in Psalm 116:11– 1) I said in my alarm, and 2) all mankind are liars, quite conceivably make reference to the cross.

In the context of the whole psalm and especially verse 3, “The snares of death encompassed me; the pangs of Sheol laid hold on me; I suffered distress and anguish,” (ESV) a reasonable, expanded paraphrase of the intended meaning of verse 11, “I said in my alarm, “All mankind are liars,” (ESV) might be:

Experiencing great emotions of alarm and fear that accompany my intense physical suffering, as I approached the cross and now hang upon it, I realize that not one person in all humanity truly understands what is happening here and who it is they are crucifying. They are all deceived. There is none who are righteous, no not one. All mankind are liars.

Similar to the thought, as presented above, of all mankind being liars is Paul’s statement in 1 Corinthians 2:8, “None of the rulers of this age understood this, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.” (ESV)

The interpretation given here that Psalm 116:11 gives a word Christ spoke during his Passion  supports the themes of Psalm 116 in its entirety. Psalm 116 is a prayer of praise and thanksgiving to God for rescue from death after great suffering. It includes the thought of martyrdom for the sake of salvation and the love of God. Verse 11 describes the Son’s agony as he sacrificed himself in love to the Father. He was alone, cut off from human support, wholly dependent on the faithfulness, goodness, and love of God to rescue him.

 

 

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Psalm 18: Papa Roars and Rescues

Drama from the Past

God the Son endangered, the ropes of death ensnared him, squeezed his breath away. A tsunami of destruction crashed upon his head. He couldn’t breathe. Hell’s net pulled him tighter, under. Death held its vise-like grip. There was no way for him to escape. In gasping anguish he cried out loud; he called to his Father for help.

“Papa! Help me! Save me! Death must not win forever!”

God in his holy temple heard his Son’s voice; the pleading cry of desperation reached the Father’s ear. Though his Son lay buried, three days in the grave, Almighty Papa roared and pierced the sky to save.

The earth reeled and rocked; foundations of mountains trembled. The royal Papa’s anger shook, an earth quaking gush of love. Smoke rose from his nostrils; devouring fire consumed, glowing coals of flame no dragon ever produced.

God bowed the heavens descending, thick darkness under his feet. He rode a cherub and flew swiftly on wings of wind. Almighty Papa in darkness cloaked, a canopy surrounds him. Thick clouds dark with water cover his form from view. Bursting through this darkness, his brightness once concealed, with flashes of fire and brimstone, his golden light breaks through. He thunders in the heavens, blasting out his voice, hailstones and coals announcing–Papa on the move.

Scattering forth his arrows, flashing out his lightnings, God routed the enemy, death…(and here the Son breaks in…)

“The channels of the sea you exposed, the foundations of the world laid bare. You rebuked them, O Lord, my Father, when your nostrils blasted your breath.”

“Did you see all this, my people? Were you watching? Did you see? When he came from on high and took me and pulled me from the waves? He rescued me from my strong enemy, from those who hated and surrounded. They were too mighty for me, confronting, that one single day. But he, the LORD my Papa came through. To this broad place he brought me. He heard my cry and rescued, because he delights in me.”

*This poem draws heavily from the English Standard Version of Psalm 18:4-19

 

 

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Psalms 18 and 118: Up from the Grave He Arose!

Resurrection Glory

 

After the dark Tenebrae chords of Psalm 88 and after the discordant realities of Messiah’s abased life while on earth as recorded in Psalm 89, Psalms 18 and 118 both ring out like joyful peals of Easter bells. Christ is alive! He did not die. Just as we heard from Messiah the God-man in his human form expressing in lament his petitions to his Father, in these psalms we also hear the voice of a man singing his carols of victory, salvation, and release from the grave. Below are a few highlights from each of these psalms. I encourage the reader to read both of these psalms with the vision provided by the apostolic kerygma, the proclamation of the gospel of Jesus Christ. We rejoice as believers, because he rejoices as one of us. His triumph was a triumph of humanity over sin and the grave.

Psalm 18

After the dark pleadings of Psalm 88–

5 like one set loose among the dead, like the slain that lie in the grave, like those whom you remember no more, for they are cut off from your hand.
6 You have put me in the depths of the pit, in the regions dark and deep.
7 Your wrath lies heavy upon me, and you overwhelm me with all your waves. Selah (Psa 88:5-7 ESV)

God replies. He was silent and absent in Psalm 88, but in Psalm 18, his response is nothing short of tremendous. And, just as Jesus pleaded his lament with great emotional overtones, God his Father replies with great emotional drama as well. Hear what the psalmist says.

4 The cords of death encompassed me; the torrents of destruction assailed me;
5 the cords of Sheol entangled me; the snares of death confronted me.
6 In my distress I called upon the LORD; to my God I cried for help. From his temple he heard my voice, and my cry to him reached his ears.
7 Then the earth reeled and rocked; the foundations also of the mountains trembled and quaked, because he was angry.
8 Smoke went up from his nostrils, and devouring fire from his mouth; glowing coals flamed forth from him.
9 He bowed the heavens and came down; thick darkness was under his feet.
10 He rode on a cherub and flew; he came swiftly on the wings of the wind.
11 He made darkness his covering, his canopy around him, thick clouds dark with water.
12 Out of the brightness before him hailstones and coals of fire broke through his clouds.
13 The LORD also thundered in the heavens, and the Most High uttered his voice, hailstones and coals of fire.
14 And he sent out his arrows and scattered them; he flashed forth lightnings and routed them.
15 Then the channels of the sea were seen, and the foundations of the world were laid bare at your rebuke, O LORD, at the blast of the breath of your nostrils.
16 He sent from on high, he took me; he drew me out of many waters.
17 He rescued me from my strong enemy and from those who hated me, for they were too mighty for me.
18 They confronted me in the day of my calamity, but the LORD was my support.
19 He brought me out into a broad place; he rescued me, because he delighted in me (cf 22:8). (Psa 18:4-19 ESV)

Psalm 118

In Psalm 118, the psalmist/resurrected Messiah sings with pure the joy of victorious release  loud celebrations of salvation. His prayers were heard and answered, and he is no longer confined alone and friendless in the dank darkness of the pit.

1 Oh give thanks to the LORD, for he is good; for his steadfast love endures forever!
… … … …
5 Out of my distress I called on the LORD; the LORD answered me and set me free.
6 The LORD is on my side; I will not fear. What can man do to me?
7 The LORD is on my side as my helper; I shall look in triumph on those who hate me.
… … … …
10 All nations surrounded me; in the name of the LORD I cut them off!
11 They surrounded me, surrounded me on every side; in the name of the LORD I cut them off!
12 They surrounded me like bees; they went out like a fire among thorns; in the name of the LORD I cut them off!
13 I was pushed hard, so that I was falling, but the LORD helped me.
14 The LORD is my strength and my song; he has become my salvation.
15 Glad songs of salvation are in the tents of the righteous: “The right hand of the LORD does valiantly,
16 the right hand of the LORD exalts, the right hand of the LORD does valiantly!”
17 I shall not die, but I shall live, and recount the deeds of the LORD.
18 The LORD has disciplined me severely, but he has not given me over to death.
19 Open to me the gates of righteousness, that I may enter through them and give thanks to the LORD.
20 This is the gate of the LORD; the righteous shall enter through it.
21 I thank you that you have answered me and have become my salvation.
22 The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone.
23 This is the LORD’s doing; it is marvelous in our eyes.
24 This is the day that the LORD has made; let us rejoice and be glad in it.
25 Save us, we pray, O LORD! O LORD, we pray, give us success!
26 Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD! We bless you from the house of the LORD.
27 The LORD is God, and he has made his light to shine upon us. Bind the festal sacrifice with cords, up to the horns of the altar!
28 You are my God, and I will give thanks to you; you are my God; I will extol you.
29 Oh give thanks to the LORD, for he is good; for his steadfast love endures forever! (Psa 118:1-29 ESV)

Christians celebrate Easter, which they often call Resurrection Sunday, because in Christ, his victory over sin and death is their victory over sin and death. Because Christ is resurrected, by faith in him, they are resurrected. Because he lives forever, they live forever.

The Bible’s promises are so majestic and broad in scope that words fail. There are no qualifications for anyone to receive all the benefits of God’s covenant of life made with Jesus Christ and through him to all believers. The one and only requirement is a lifelong TRUST in the life, death, and resurrection of the ascended Jesus Christ of Nazareth, as both Savior and Lord. The duration of the lifelong commitment might be no more than one minute, for those who choose to believe on their deathbeds, or an entire span of multiple decades in a hard labor camp. Eternal life is so great that no one merits it, nor one more than another (Matthew 20:1-16).

If you have not already done so, won’t you place your trust in Christ today?

 

 

 

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Psalm 89: Short Devotional

Psalm 89 tells an interesting story of God’s promises to Israel concerning Messiah. The exalted expectations are then contrasted with the harsh realities of the Messiah’s life during his incarnation. The psalmist/Messiah points out the contractions to the Lord, reminding him of his promises. He asks the Lord why his life compares so unfavorably with the promises. Nevertheless, he closes by blessing the Lord.

The reader needs to bear in mind that the psalm is prophecy, and this is Scripture’s way of announcing that the Messiah’s life would be one of suffering. The facts of his future incarnation do not seem to resemble the facts of God’s promises. No one understood this in the days when Jesus walked on earth, not even his own disciples. It was left to the Lord to explain the prophetic Scriptures concerning himself to his disciples after his resurrection. We, as readers today, have the great advantage of hindsight, although even today, many, if not most, believers do not perceive the messianic prophecies in this psalm. Psalm 89 is not listed as being messianic in most study Bibles.

In the first section concerning creation, verses 2 and 5-18, we see that God created all things, and his power is supreme. Righteousness and justice are the foundation of his throne; steadfast love and faithfulness go before him. (v 14)

The second section describes God’s promises to Israel through Messiah from verses 3-4 and 19-37. God’s righteous, just, loving, and faithful nature, as established, manifested, and proven throughout all of creation, form the basis of his covenant with Israel, as represented by David his servant, and by the Greater David, Messiah. God’s people know and understand God’s nature and are blessed because they walk in it. In the long speech block from verse 19 thr0ugh 37, God describes in his own words the future messianic kingdom, Messiah’s loving response to him (verse 26), and the nature of his disciplinary yet covenantal interactions with Messiah’s progeny. Just as God proves himself to be righteous, just, loving, and faithful in all his created works, so the Israelites and Messiah can count on him to be the same in all his covenantal dealings with them.

Section three, verses 38-51, describes Messiah’s actual incarnated experience with statements such as:

38 But now you have cast off and rejected; you are full of wrath against your anointed.
39 You have renounced the covenant with your servant; you have defiled his crown in the dust.
… … … … … 
42 You have exalted the right hand of his foes; you have made all his enemies rejoice.
… … … … …
45 You have cut short the days of his youth; you have covered him with shame. Selah

Using our reader’s hindsight and what we know of the gospel message about the life of Jesus of Nazareth, we can recognize that the words of prophecy in Psalm 89 describe well Messiah’s actual life during his incarnation.

Section 4 records Messiah’s prayerful protest to God. As we read these words, there can be no doubt that Messiah was fully man. These words are spoken from a human vantage, and a suffering human at that. Well may Paul have had Psalm 89 in mind when he wrote of Christ to the Philippians:

5 Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus,
6 who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped,
7 but emptied himself, by taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men.
8 And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. (Phi 2:5-8 ESV)

Finally, the last verse concludes the psalm with a word of blessing for the Lord. In this, the psalmist/Messiah reminds us that even when the path is difficult and strewn with trials of all kinds, God is faithful to perform what he promises, notwithstanding all appearances to the contrary, and in that we worship and adore him.

Psalm 89 does not solve the mystery of a suffering Messiah–it simply announces the mystery. Nevertheless, by the time Jesus walked the earth, his entire people had lost sight of the full scope of this psalm’s message. They grasped well enough the exalted promises of God to Israel through a glorified Messiah, but they apparently had never connected or had forgotten the last portions of the psalm, which paint a portrait of a suffering Messiah. How like ourselves–don’t we so often want the glory without the pain?

 

 

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Psalm 89: History to the Foot of the Cross

Abstract

When as readers we consistently keep Christ in view and use the key of the gospel message which he himself provided to his disciples after his resurrection (Luke 24:25-27, 44-47), much of the Psalter prophetically accommodates the apostolic kerygma (gospel message). In Psalm 88, Christ the Messiah, in his form as a human being (Philippians 2:8), prophetically laments his condition as he approaches the grave and then descends into it. Psalm 89 gives us another view of Christ’s persecuted life during his incarnation, with the difference that it stops short of his Passion week. Before we hear the psalmist’s lament, however, the reader is given a brief review in broad, comprehensive strokes of the biblical history of creation and the Davidic Covenant. (Link to text of Psalm 89: Link)

Psalm 89 Is Like Readers’ Theater 

Dialogue is notably present in Psalm 89. Speech as a tool creates dramatic immediacy and truthfulness within the psalm. The quotations themselves unite Scripture into an organic whole, as one portion cites other portions. Speech causes the readers or listeners to recall the real history of Israel as God’s holy people.

One of the first tasks for the reader, then, is to recognize that speech occurs. The fancy word for this reading technique is prosopological exegesis (Matthew W. Bates, The Hermeneutics of the Apostolic Proclamation, 183f). Our task in Psalm 89 is made easier by the use within the text of quotation marks and identifying speech markers, such as, “I said, …” (v 2) and, “You have said, …” (v 3). Additionally, the text supplies a liberal use of second person speech labels, as commonly used in direct address: “you” (e.g., vv 8, 9, and 10) and “your” (e.g., vv 4, 14, 15). Finally, the use of first person singular in verses 1 and 50, intertwined with direct address (you) to God, provides a strong clue to the reader that dialogue is present. The reader can easily envision Psalm 89 being performed or read upon a dramatic stage, perhaps as a reader’s theater.

Where is the Speech and Who Are the Speakers?

The psalmist (the narrative speaker of the psalm, not the author) makes reference to himself as “I” in verse 1 and again in verse 50. As is usual in the Psalter, the first person psalmist does not identify himself. One of the first person speakers is God, as the entire context declares. Therefore, our task is to identify the voice represented by the other speaker, the first person psalmist. No universal agreement exists. If there were, there would be no need for me to write. Context, however, including the previously mentioned apostolic kerygma,  provides sufficient clues for the reader to confidently assume that the speaker is the Anointed One.

  1. God as the reported speaker in verses 3-4 states the Davidic Covenant as it applies to Messiah. Verses 19-37 expand the terms of that covenant (see 2 Samuel 7:1-17). Details of this expansion, as in the original, indicate that the covenant extends beyond David himself and refer to God’s chosen Messiah, or Anointed (see vv 25-37, especially verses 27, 29, and 36).
  2. The gospel message, or apostolic kerygma, proclaims Jesus of Nazareth to be Christ, God’s Messiah.
  3. Verses 50 and 51 (“Remember, O Lord, how your servants are mocked, and how I bear in my heart the insults of all the many nations, 5with which your enemies mock, O Lord, with which they mock the footsteps of your anointed,“) in context of the larger unit unite the first person speaker and the referenced Messiah. The calamities described in verses 38-51 have befallen the Anointed One with whom God made the covenant, and by the use of first person singular in verse 50, the psalmist claims those calamities as his own.

The Four Sections of the Psalm

Psalm 89 tells the interesting story of God’s promises to Israel concerning Messiah. The exalted expectations are then contrasted with the harsh realities of the Messiah’s life during his incarnation. The psalmist/Messiah points out the contractions to the Lord, reminding him of his promises. He asks the Lord why his life compares so unfavorably with the promises. Nevertheless, he closes by blessing the Lord. (I am indebted to Patrick Reardon for his observation of the sections in Psalm 89. While he identifies three sections, I find it more convenient to locate and describe four. See Reardon, 175.)

The reader needs to bear in mind that the psalm is prophecy, and this is Scripture’s way of announcing that the Messiah’s life would be one of suffering. The facts of his future incarnation do not seem to resemble the facts of God’s promises. No one understood this in the days when Jesus walked on earth, not even his own disciples. It was left to the Lord to explain the prophetic Scriptures concerning himself to his disciples after his resurrection. We, as readers today, have the great advantage of hindsight, although even today, many, if not most, believers do not perceive the messianic prophecies in this psalm. Psalm 89 is not listed as being messianic in most study Bibles.

Section 1 

Creation: Verses 2, 5-18. God created all things, and his power is supreme, even over Rahab (Job 9:3).  Righteousness and justice are the foundation of God’s throne; steadfast love and faithfulness go before him. (v 14)

Section 2

God’s Promise to Israel and Messiah: Verses 3-4, 19-37. God’s righteous, just, loving, and faithful nature, as established, manifested, and proven throughout all of creation, form the basis of his covenant with Israel, as represented by David his servant, and by the Greater David, Messiah. Verses 15-18 provide the transition from the first section to the second. God’s people know and understand God’s nature as expressed in creation, and they are blessed because they walk in accordance with his nature.

In the long speech block from verse 19 thr0ugh 37, God describes in his own words the future messianic kingdom, Messiah’s loving response to him (verse 26), and the nature of his disciplinary yet covenantal interactions with Messiah’s progeny. Just as God proves himself to be righteous, just, loving, and faithful in all his created works, so the Israelites and Messiah can count on him to be the same in all his covenantal dealings with them.

Section 3

Enter Messiah. Enter Discord. Is Something Wrong? This Reality Doesn’t Match Up with the Promise. Description of the Discord: Verses 38-51

Verses 38-51 describes Messiah’s actual incarnated experience with the following statements:

38 But now you have cast off and rejected; you are full of wrath against your anointed.
39 You have renounced the covenant with your servant; you have defiled his crown in the dust.
40 You have breached all his walls; you have laid his strongholds in ruins.
41 All who pass by plunder him; he has become the scorn of his neighbors.
42 You have exalted the right hand of his foes; you have made all his enemies rejoice.
43 You have also turned back the edge of his sword, and you have not made him stand in battle.
44 You have made his splendor to cease and cast his throne to the ground.
45 You have cut short the days of his youth; you have covered him with shame. Selah

Section 4

Messiah’s Prayer of Appeal (vv 46-51)

As we read Messiah’s prayerful protest to God, there can be no doubt that Messiah was fully man. These words are spoken from a human vantage, and a suffering human at that. Well may Paul have had this psalm in mind when he wrote of Christ to the Philippians:

5 Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus,
6 who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped,
7 but emptied himself, by taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men.
8 And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. (Phi 2:5-8 ESV)

Summary and Conclusion

Psalm 89 concludes, as many psalms do, with a final word of blessing for the Lord. Here the psalmist/Messiah reminds us that even when the path is difficult and strewn with trials of all kinds, God is faithful to perform what he promises, notwithstanding all appearances to the contrary, and in that his people worship and adore him.

Psalm 89 does not solve the mystery of a suffering Messiah–it simply announces the mystery. Nevertheless, as mentioned above, by the time Jesus walked the earth, his entire people had lost sight of the full scope of this psalm’s message. They grasped well enough the exalted promises of God to Israel through a glorified Messiah, but they apparently had never connected or had forgotten the last portions of the psalm, which paint a portrait of a suffering Messiah. How like ourselves–don’t we so often want the glory without the pain?

 

 

 

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