The Dragon and a Vineyard: Isaiah Journal 56

By Christina M Wilson. Text published Simultaneously at The Dragon and a Vineyard: Isaiah Devotional Journal 56 –

Isaiah 27:1-6    Septuagint Modernized

Isaiah 27:1–The Very End

Isaiah foretells the very end of this age in Isaiah 27:1. As such, this verse fits better with Isaiah 26 and what preceded it than with  Isaiah 27. See “Back and Forth Spiritual War” in Journal 54 (1).

Isaiah 27:1 In that day God shall bring His holy and great and strong sword upon the dragon, even the serpent that flees, upon the dragon, the crooked serpent; He shall destroy the dragon. (CAB, LXE)

Notes for the Orthodox Study Bible (Septuagint text) state, “The sword is Christ, the Incarnate God, who will slay the dragon, Satan.” (2) This accords with the Apostle John’s use of these words in the book of Revelation. See Revelation 12:1-17, especially Revelation 12:9Revelation 20:2; and Revelation 20:10. The final and complete destruction of Satan occurs near the very end of Scripture and marks the end of this creation. Chapter 21 introduces the new heaven and the new earth (Revelation 21:1).

The evidence that 27:1 fits best with Chapter 26, rather than with 27 is this: 1) Other parts of Scripture (see above) interpret the various animal names of Isaiah 27:1 as synonyms for Satan. 2) Satan is finally destroyed. 3) Satan’s destruction at the very end of this age of human history is applicable to the entire world and all of humanity. 4) Chapter 26 concerns the world, and chapter 27 concerns Israel. 5) Therefore, verse 27:1 is the conclusion of Christ’s victory for the whole world, i.e., Chapter 26.

Isaiah 27:2-6–The Vineyard

Septuagint (Greek) and Masoretic (Hebrew) Textual Differences


Many authors compare this passage of the vineyard with Isaiah’s prior passage in Isaiah 5:1-7. That vineyard was profitless, in that it yielded wild grapes (vv 2, 4), or “thorns” in the Septuagint.

II. THE MASORETIC VINEYARD (Link to Parallel Versions: ISAIAH 27:2-5, Septuagint and Masoretic side by side)

In Isaiah, the opening phrase “in that day” indicates a time future to Isaiah, the era of Messiah. There is a pleasant vineyard that inspires the LORD himself to break into song. The picture the song about the vineyard presents lies in striking contrast to the vineyard passage that begins in Isaiah 5:1.

In Chapter 27, the first person speaker, “I, the LORD,” describes in verse how mindfully he protects and cares for the vineyard. As an example of his passion, in verse 4, he even (poetically) wishes that the vineyard had thorns and briers that he could battle against and burn up. The ESV text does not indicate whether the thorns and briers would be internal enemies growing out of Israel itself, or external enemies. In either event, the LORD would destroy and burn them all. Or, even better, the LORD invites these enemies to come to him for protection and to make peace with him. Overall, this is a positive, kindly picture of the vineyard. Verse 6 follows, and there is no contradiction between it and the previous verses 2-5.

27:6 In days to come Jacob shall take root, Israel shall blossom and put forth shoots and fill the whole world with fruit. ESV

III. THE SEPTUAGINT VINEYARD (Link to Parallel Versions: ISAIAH 27:2-5, Septuagint and Masoretic side by side)

27:2 In that day there shall be a fair vineyard, and a desire to commence a song concerning it. I  am a strong city, a city in a siege; in vain shall I water it; for it shall be taken by night, and by day the wall shall fall. There is no woman that has not taken hold of it; who will set me to watch stubble in the field? Because of this enemy I have set her aside; therefore on this account the  Lord has done all that He appointed. I am burned up; they that dwell in her shall cry, Let us  make peace with Him, let us make peace;

Septuagint verse 2 begins just as the Masoretic. It opens, “In that day.” The statement of a “fair,” or pleasant, vineyard follows. This vineyard also inspires song. Here in the Septuagint, however, the LORD seems not to be the speaker. The “I” more likely is the vineyard itself, in a metaphorical comparison to a strong city. The last time this nearly identical phrase presented itself was Isaiah 26:1. In that verse, the people of Judah sing, “We have a strong city,” with reference to themselves.

The Septuagint in 27:2 makes an immediate turn, however, departing from the Masoretic of that same verse. In the Septuagint, the city is in siege. Quickly, the speaker appears to change, although not identified. The text uses only pronouns throughout. The caretaker of the vineyard, possibly the Lord, waters it in vain. The vineyard shall be captured by night, and in the morning, its wall will fall (See 2 Kings 25:10-11).

Verse 4 poetically describes the utter collapse of the vineyard/city. The “I” in this verse appears to be the Lord, admitting that he used the warring enemy as the occasion in which he set his vineyard (Israel) aside. Returning to third person, an unnamed narrator states that in this manner, through the warring actions of an enemy, the Lord (whom the text names for the first time) accomplished all that he had planned. In other words, in these verses Isaiah states that the Lord accomplished the destruction he had appointed for Judah and Jerusalem. (Isaiah uses as prophetic past tense, since the Babylonian invasion is still future to Isaiah’s time.)

In verse 5 the vineyard/city itself speaks and is identified, “‘I am burned up,’” they that dwell in her shall cry, ‘Let us make peace with Him, let us make peace;’” The destruction of the vineyard/city works into its inhabitants a spirit of repentance and turning toward the Lord. They surrender.

The reader can take note that there is nothing in this version (LXX) that does not accord with what Isaiah states elsewhere. Rather, unlike the Masoretic text, there is a smooth flow into verse 6, “they that are coming are the children of Jacob. Israel shall bud and blossom, and the world shall be filled with his fruit (LXE).” 


Both the Septuagint and Masoretic agree on verse 6. Israel shall bud and blossom, and the world shall be filled with its fruit. From this point to the end of the chapter, both textual traditions remain in basic agreement. Commentators, however, do not agree on the specific meaning of the text. The persistence of unreferenced pronouns (they are not identified with specific nouns) and poetic metaphors contribute to the difficulty of comprehending Isaiah’s own meaning.

Israel’s Exile

To Be Continued


1 Some commentators place Isaiah 27:1 with Chapter 26 and others with Chapter 27.

2 Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology, Elk Grove, California. The Orthodox Study Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2008.

Switchbacks in Isaiah 26: Journal 55

By Christina M Wilson. Published under a different title at: Evangelistic Switchbacks: Isaiah 26-Journal 55 –

Isaiah 26    Septuagint Modernized

Evangelistic Switchbacks and Spiritual Warfare-Isaiah 26

Evangelistic switchbacks alternate between the benefits of belief and the condemnation of resistance. First and foremost, God through his Holy Spirit wrote a strong evangelistic appeal in Scripture (2 Timothy 3:16). That is why in both the Psalter and Isaiah the reader does not get too far into blessings for the faithful without encountering condemnation for God’s enemies. The divine author, God, embeds in these frequent contrasts his evangelistic appeal: Leave the one and join the other. Your very life is at stake. Isaiah 26 provides a great example of the evangelistic nature of the Bible.

The Opening Salvo

In the first six verses, Isaiah 26:1-6, the prophet provides a succinct overview of the outcome of all things. On the one hand, those who hope in the Lord forever will live securely and peacefully in the Lord’s strong city. He constructed the city, and he protects it with walls of salvation. On the other hand, God will bring down those who live in their “lofty” pride. He will place them beneath the feet of the gentle and humble. Those who once trampled others will themselves be trampled upon.

God’s heart, however, is open. He wants to bless everyone who chooses his blessing.

Open the gates… Isaiah 26:2

The Lord excludes no one a priori (Genesis 4:6-7). And so, in Isaiah 26, the author continues to contrast the outcome for the faithful with the outcome of the obstinate.

A Second Round


Isaiah then alternates back from describing the outcome for those who deny God (vs 6) to the outcome for his hopeful ones (vs 7). Here then is the second round of blessing.

Isaiah 26:The way of the godly is made straight; the way of the godly is also prepared. For the way of the Lord is judgment; we have hoped in Your name, and on the remembrance of  You, which our soul longs for; my spirit seeks You very early in the morning, O God, for Your commandments are a light on the earth; learn righteousness, you that dwell upon the earth. (CAB, LXE)


1. The author uses the phrase, “the way,” three times in two verses. The first two are, “the way of the godly.” The third is, “the way of the Lord.” The verses read, “The way of the godly is made straight.” “The way of the godly is also prepared.” “For the way of the Lord is judgment.”

Isaiah means here that it is good to follow “the way” of the Lord–his judgments, commandments, and precepts. The whole paragraph is a comfort, whose setting is the intimacy of prayer with a loving God who brings light to humankind’s understanding through his words and teaching.

2. Notice the change from plural “we” in verse 8 to singular “my” in verse 9. “My spirit seeks you very early in the morning, O God.” It is possible that the Lord himself is praying this prayer from the prophetic vantage of his incarnation. This verse rings with similarity to Mark 1:35, “And rising very early in the morning, while it was still dark, he departed and went out to a desolate place, and there he prayed.”

3. “The way of the godly (plural) is made straight; the way of the godly (plural) is also prepared,” in Isaiah 26:7 finds a singular repetition in Isaiah 40:3 and Matthew 3:3.

4. Jesus refers to himself as “the way” in John 14:6. “I am the way, and the truth, and the life.” The book of Acts in several places refers to early Christians as followers of “the way.” Use of “Way” as an early name of Christianity is common in Acts. For example, Acts 19:23 states, “About that time there arose no little disturbance concerning the Way.”

5. The often repeated communion formula, “This, do in remembrance of me,” (Luke 22:191 Corinthians 11:2425) carries an echo of Isaiah’s sentence which reads, “We have hoped in Your name, and on the remembrance of  You, which our soul longs for…” (Isaiah 26:8-9).

6. That Jesus is the “light” of God is a major theme of John the Apostle, both in his gospel and his first letter.


Verses 7-9 comfort the godly by the blessed communion with God through meditation and remembrance of his way, his judgments (precepts and discipline), his light, and indeed his presence. Verse 10 switches back to the contrasting end of the “ungodly.”

Isaiah 26:10 For the ungodly one is put down; no one who will not learn righteousness on the earth, shall be able to do the truth; let the ungodly be taken away, that he may not see the glory of the Lord. (CAB, LXE)

The following verse presents an enigma. Who are “they”? (Isaiah 26:11). The connotation is negative, for when the Lord “exalted” his arm, “they knew it not.” Who are the people most blind, who failed to know the Lord when he came? Paul writes, “None of the rulers of this age understood this, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory” (1 Corinthians 2:8). If “they” are God’s Old Testament people, then the “untaught” are the Gentiles who became zealous for the blessings. Paul writes, “… whoever believes in him will not be put to shame” (Romans 9:33). 

Isaiah may hint and whisper at the gospel and its adverse reception by God’s people here in chapter 26. In later chapters, however, he spells out his meaning boldly and clearly. See, for example, Isaiah 65:1 and Romans 10:20. What is loud and clear in chapter 26, however, is that the prophet describes two camps of people with two very different outcomes. Isaiah 26:11 closes with, “… and now fire shall devour the adversaries.”

The Rounds Continue


Verses 12 and 13 present another direct prayer.

12 O Lord our God, give us peace, for You have rendered to us all things. 13 O Lord our God, take possession of us; O Lord, we know not any other beside You; we name Your name.

This prayer of confession (in the sense of personal testimony) suits the remnant, rather than the nation of Israel as a whole. The nation remains apostate throughout Isaiah, while the remnant clings to God. The prayer evidences the passionate pleading of those who hunger and thirst for righteousness (Matthew 5:6).


The switchback to the evil “they” occurs in Isaiah 26:14-15. The Septuagint text (LXX) reads differently than the Masoretic in verses 13-15. (Find both texts HERE in parallel versions.) While verse 13 in the LXX confesses the abiding trust of the Lord’s faithful, the Masoretic indicates the various foreign powers or gods who have dominated them in their history. However, Judah to this point in their history has remained independent of foreign “lords.” Further, their heart has not remained faithful to their one, true God. That is Isaiah’s precise point, as he attempts again and again to call them back.

The Masoretic verses from 13-15 require a virtuous (repentant) Israel as a nation, which does not exist in Isaiah, nor in the Gospels nor Acts. The Septuagint, however, in these same three verses, represents a faithful remnant. The Masoretic requires a “but” (other lords than you dominated us, but…). The Septuagint flows smoothly without abrupt contrasts. Both versions, however, indicate that the evil will be punished. The “glorious of the earth” in the Septuagint are the lofty, prideful of heart. They live in the “strong cities” of verse 5 and are the “ungodly” of verse 10.


Another switchback from the ungodly of verses 14-15 to the faithful godly occurs in verse 16. The section beginning there continues as a prayer of direct address to the Lord in verses 16-19 of the Septuagint.

Isaiah 26:16 Lord, in affliction I remembered You; Your chastening was to us with small affliction. 17 And as a woman in labor draws near to be delivered, and cries out in her pain; so have we been to Your beloved. 18 We have conceived, O Lord, because of Your fear, and have been in pain, and have brought forth the breath of Your salvation, which we have wrought upon the earth; we shall not fall, but all that dwell upon the land shall fall. 19 The dead shall rise, and they that are in the tombs shall be raised, and they that are in the earth shall rejoice; for the dew from You is healing to them; but the land of the ungodly shall perish.19 The dead shall rise, and they that are in the tombs shall be raised, and they that are in the earth shall rejoice; for the dew from You is healing to them; but the land of the ungodly shall perish.

The gospel accounts of the faithful few who welcomed Jesus’s birth can help the reader understand the faithful remnant represented here in the Septuagint. The prayers and exclamations of Elizabeth, Mary, and Zechariah resemble this four verse prayer in Isaiah. The devotion and hunger for the Lord’s salvation are the same in each. Simeon and Anna, both present in the temple when Jesus’s parents brought him to be dedicated (Luke 2:22-38) are further examples of the kind of people who pray the prayer in Isaiah 26:16-19, Septuagint.

The difference between the Septuagint and the Masoretic begins in verse 16. The Septuagint begins the prayer in first person. The speaker acknowledges the chastening of the Lord upon them. The prayer is intimate, personal. This is not so in the Masoretic account. The Septuagint, however, draws the beautiful point that the supplicant is mother of the Lord’s “beloved.” The “beloved” is the Christ (Matthew 3:17Revelation 12:1-25). This prayer of God’s faithful remnant reveals a most beautiful love between them and the Messiah to whom they gave birth.

Both the Septuagint and the Masoretic represent the pain of childbirth in verse 17 similarly. But verse 18, is very different.

Masoretic: We have been with child, we have been in pain, we have as it were brought forth wind; we have not wrought any deliverance in the earth; neither have the inhabitants of the world fallen. (Isaiah 26:18 ESV)

Septuagint: We have conceived, O Lord, because of Your fear, and have been in pain, and have brought forth the breath of Your salvation, which we have wrought upon the earth; we shall not fall, but all that dwell upon the land shall fall. (CAB, LXE)

An Exciting Verse in the Septuagint !!

In Masoretic Isaiah 26:18, all is “wind.” Wind in that version represents futility, vanity, emptiness, a frustration to the purpose of childbearing. It is also very difficult to visualize concretely. Further, in the Masoretic, Israel has not wrought deliverance, nor have the wicked been deposed (“Neither have the inhabitants of the world fallen”). Or, as other translations state, they have not come to life.  But in the Septuagint version, the word “wind” is translated to mean “spirit” or “breath.” “We have brought forth the breath [spirit] of Your salvation.”

In other words, the remnant, in spite of all the affliction that came their way, succeeded in fulfilling the mission God had given them. They did give birth to Messiah. The faithful remnant achieved what God intended from the beginning. The purpose of all those genealogies had been fulfilled. The woman of Revelation 12:1-6 gave birth!

The Victory Cry

Verse 19 in the Masoretic presents a shocking jolt from the sense of verse 18 in those texts. The jump is so huge that explanation of it falters. The Septuagint flows smoothly, however. Verse 19 raises a cry of victory based upon the successful birth of verse 18.

19 The dead shall rise, and they that are in the tombs shall be raised, and they that are in the earth shall rejoice; for the dew from You is healing to them… (CAB, LXE)

Simply put, the Septuagint prophesies Messiah’s birth in 26:18 and shouts out the gloriously wonderful outcome in verse 19. The Masoretic shares the joy of verse 19, but misses the prequel, the preparatory buildup of verse 18.


 Following these magnificent blessings, Isaiah switches back to a pronouncement of doom upon the ungodly. It is very short, occupying only the latter clause of verse 19.

19 …but the land of the ungodly shall perish. (CAB, LXE)

Unfortunately, the Masoretic texts miss this contrast.


Following the brief but poignant outcome for the “land of the ungodly” in the last clause of verse 19, verses 20-21 close the chapter with the Lord’s reply to his faithful remnant’s prayer in the prior verses.

Isaiah 26:20 provides the outcome for the faithful people. The Lord bids them to shelter with patient endurance for a little while longer.

19… but the land of the ungodly shall perish. 20 Go, my people, enter into your closets, shut your door, hide yourself for a little season, until the anger of the Lord has passed away.

Revelation 6:9 When he opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slain for the word of God and for the witness they had borne. 10 They cried out with a loud voice, “O Sovereign Lord, holy and true, how long before you will judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?” 11 Then they were each given a white robe and told to rest a little longer, until the number of their fellow servants and their brothers should be complete, who were to be killed as they themselves had been. (ESV)


21 For behold, the Lord is bringing wrath from His holy place on those that dwell upon the earth; the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall not cover her slain. (CAB, LXE)

A DETAIL, YET IMPORTANT: Notice how the outcome of verse 21 in the Septuagint corresponds in parallel with the outcome of verse 18. In verse 18, Isaiah writes, “we shall not fall, but all that dwell upon the land shall fall.” Here in verses 20-21, the outcomes are the same. God’s godly ones will hide under his protection (verses 18 and 20), and the stubbornly ungodly will fall (verses 19 and 21). Because of the different text of Masoretic Isaiah 26:18-19, that textual tradition loses the internal correspondence contained in the Septuagint.

A Summary Chart of Isaiah 26 Septuagint

A Reader’s Personal Response

As a reader, I find that there is no such thing as reading quickly through Isaiah. (This is also true of most non-narrative Scripture.) It seems that the slower one reads, the more treasure she uncovers. On the other hand, even a fast reading of Isaiah reveals the main themes of blessing for the repentant faithful in Christ, Messiah, and condemnation for the unfaithful, those who rebel against God’s word. Chapter 26 excels in its illustration of these contrasting themes.

A Look Ahead

Chapter 27 opens with a new section beginning once again with the phrase, “In that day.” Chapter 27 sums up the outcome for Satan himself.

Isaiah’s Apocalypse: Devotional Journal 54

By BylineChristina Wilson on 

Isaiah 26    Septuagint Modernized

Isaiah’s Apocalypse Continues

Review and Overview

1. Wrathful Judgment

After he finished the details of the nations, Isaiah began relating his apocalyptic, or end times, vision. Isaiah’s apocalypse continues from Isaiah 24:1 through 27:13. Chapter 24 focuses on the final judgment of the human system, as we know it. He sets his theme in verse 1 (Isaiah 24:1) and continues through verse 20. This portion appears further developed by the Apostle John in Revelation.

2. Glorious Salvation

Set against the destruction of those who oppose God, the prophet describes a glorious salvation.

1. He contrasts the wrathful judgment that strips away the harvest of wickedness (Isaiah 24:12-13) with the reappearance of a spared remnant (“they that are left on the land,” Septuagint). Isaiah 24:15-16 is a “mini” Book of Acts (1), as it describes a gospel message taking hold in the “islands of the sea,” (Septuagint). Isaiah 24:21-22 sound remarkably similar to Revelation 20:1-3.

2. The Septuagint presents a beautifully worded verse, “And the brick shall decay, and the wall shall fall; for the Lord shall reign from out of Sion, and out of Jerusalem, and shall be glorified before his elders” (Isaiah 24:23 LXE). This single verse fairly well sums up Ephesians 2:11-16, especially verse 14. Ephesians 2:14 states, “For he himself is our peace, who has made us both one and has broken down in his flesh the dividing wall of hostility (ESV).

3. Who is the Lord (Yahweh) in Isaiah 24:23? The verse says, “The Lord… shall be glorified before his elders.” Is it possible for God Almighty (the Father) to have “elders?” Wouldn’t this verse be more fitting for the Lord Messiah, Christ? Indeed, Christ actually was glorified before his “elders,” Moses and Elijah, in the Transfiguration of Matthew 17:1-6 and Luke 9:28-35.

4. Joy in salvation continues from Isaiah 24:23-25:10a. Following this, he prophesies in three verses against the prideful wicked, represented by Moab (Isaiah 24:10b-12.)

3. Back and Forth Spiritual War

In summary, Isaiah presents a long section on wrathful judgment in chapter 24, interrupted by a shorter section concerning salvation of the willing. Then, in chapter 25, he presents a long section rejoicing in salvation. He interrupts this by a short section to tell the end of the wicked. Next, in the section from Isaiah 26:1-27:1, Isaiah combines the two themes of judgment for the faithful (salvation) and judgment against the wicked (condemnation) in more rapid succession, interweaving these throughout.

4. The Apocalypse Continues

Finally, the remainder of Isaiah’s apocalypse continues through the end of chapter 27.  This chapter describes Israel’s future. However, Isaiah doesn’t name “Israel” per se. Rather, he uses metaphors and the word Jacob.

A Peek Ahead

This blog will continue with further details of Isaiah 26, Lord willing. Please stay tuned.

A Song of the Redeemed: Isaiah 26:1-6

By Christina M Wilson. Simultaneously published at

Isaiah 26    Septuagint Modernized

Isaiah 26:1 In that day they shall sing this song in the land of Judah; Behold a strong city; and He shall make salvation its wall and bulwark. 2 Open the gates, let the nation enter that keeps righteousness, and keeps truth, 3 supporting truth, and keeping peace; for on You, O Lord, 4 they have trusted with confidence forever, the great, eternal God; 5 who has humbled and brought down them that dwell on high; You shall cast down strong cities, and bring them to the ground. 6 And the feet of the meek and lowly shall trample them. (CAB {1}, LXE)

A Song of the Redeemed

How does the reader know that this passage in Isaiah is a song of the redeemed? Before the details, I present two “housekeeping” points. First, this post for the most part follows the Septuagint translation. Second, I’ll present verse 7  in a following section, rather than this.

I. “A Strong City”–What City?

A. What clues does the text provide concerning the nature of this city?

1. “In that day” (v 1). The song opens with the phrase, “In that day.” What day is this? This is the day Israel had waited for since Moses’s bold announcement that God would send another prophet like Moses.

Deuteronomy 18:15 The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you– from your fellow Israelites; you must listen to him. (NET)

Mark 9:7 And a cloud overshadowed them, and a voice came out of the cloud, “This is my beloved Son; listen to him.” (ESV)

2. “The land of Judah”(v 1).  Israel’s Messiah came from the tribe of Judah.

3. “Salvation its wall and bulwark” (v 1). The reader finds here a poetic image. It seems entirely difficult to picture a concrete wall and outer wall constructed of “salvation.” The Greek text uses the adjective “our,” which Brenton (LXE above) does not include. The Orthodox Study Bible writes, “He [God] will make our salvation its surrounding wall.” The New English Translation of the Septuagint writes, “He will make our salvation its wall and outer wall.” This abstract, metaphoric description implies that only the “saved” will enter the city. Further, all those who live inside the “strong city” will be protected from harm by their “salvation.”

Luke 19:10 For the Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost.” (ESV)

John 3:17 For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him. (ESV)

4. “Open the gates” (v 2). Salvation and residence in Messiah’s strong city is for everyone. “Open the gates,” beckons and invites. Like the voice of wisdom in Proverbs 1:20-21 and 8:1-3, the call is to “Come!”

5. “Open the gates; let the people enter who keep righteousness and guard the truth” (v 2).

 Matthew 5:6 “Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied. (ESV)

Ephesians 6:14 Stand therefore, having fastened on the belt of truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, (ESV)

Notice also the unity of the people who inhabit the city in Isaiah 26:2. The song speaks not of a multitude of nations nor of people, but one “laos” (people, nation). This lines up with Paul’s teaching in Ephesians 2 and Jesus’s prayer to his father in John 17.

6. Open the gates to “the ones who have trusted…forever” (v 4). Old Testament Israel always supported a remnant, a small minority who clung to their Lord and obeyed him faithfully throughout the generations. The “strong city” will welcome these, as well as all new believers. The city will endure “forever.”

7. “The great, eternal God” (v 4). Jesus, the Messiah, is he who unites the Old and New Testaments. Throughout Old Testament Scripture, including Isaiah, references abound which use more than one name for God. Verse 4 in the Greek Septuagint (3-4 in Brenton’s translation) uses both the name “Lord” and “God.” “Lord” in Greek in the Old Testament is identical to “Lord” in the New Testament. “Lord” in the New Testament is generally used with reference to Jesus Christ. The Greek word for “God” (theos) in Isaiah 26:4 is identical to the Greek word for “God” in the New Testament.

The old (1952 and 1971) Revised Standard Version matches the old (1917) JPS (Jewish Publication Society) version:

Isaiah 26:4 Trust ye in the LORD for ever, for the LORD is GOD, an everlasting Rock. (JPS, 1917)

These older translations in English speak even more strongly than the Septuagint, concerning the single identity of  the “Lord” and “God” of the Old Testament.

Isaiah 26:3 … for on You, O Lord, 4 they have trusted with confidence forever, the great, eternal God;

8. God, in the “strong city,” has humbled the proud and placed the lowly above them (vv 5-6). Everyone who reads the gospels must recognize that Jesus Messiah directly appealed to the humble. He promised the “world” to them.

Matthew 5:3 “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (ESV)

Matthew 5:5 “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. (ESV)

B. Comparison with Other Scriptures
  1. Jesus’s parable of the rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31). This parable illustrates the principles of Isaiah 26:5-6.
  2. Hebrews 11:10, 16; 12:22; 13:13-14. These references point to a spiritual city of  God, as opposed to a concrete city. The characteristics of the city which the writer to the Hebrews describes correspond to the city in Isaiah.
  3. Galatians 4:25-27. Here again, Paul relies on the spiritual nature of the cities he describes.
  4. Revelation 3:12 speaks of a future (not yet) city. 17:18f speaks of a spiritual, anit-Christian city. Revelation 21:2f (not yet) again speaks of the (currently) spiritual city of Jerusalem, which will come down from heaven in the new creation.
  5. In John 4:21-23, in the context of “salvation,”  Jesus speaks to the woman at the well about the spiritual nature of the worship of the “true worshipers” whom the Father seeks. That time (“in that day”), he tells her, “is coming, and is now here.” It is as though Jesus said to her, Not yet (is coming) and Already (now here.)

II. Conclusions

  1. The “strong city” of Isaiah 26:1 is the Kingdom of the Lord Christ (Messiah).
  2. This city displays strong Already/Not Yet characteristics.
  3. The New Testament writers “spiritualized” this city (a good thing, not a bad thing).
  4. The exhortations and encouragements of the New Testament indicate that Christians now (see the verses in Hebrews) are already citizens of this city. Testimony from Christians around the world confirms the biblical view.
  5. The book of Revelation indicates that the complete fulfillment of the song of the redeemed in Isaiah 26 is not yet. 
  6. The characteristics of Isaiah’s city are the characteristics of the Kingdom of Christ. Those who enter the opened gates enjoy the following blessings.
    • righteousness
    • truth
    • faithfulness
    • salvation
    • strength
    • eternity
    • humility
    • peace
  7. Scripture is a unified whole. Jesus Christ fulfills the invitation Isaiah extended for all peoples of all nations to join the song of the redeemed.


1 The Complete Apostles’ Bible. Translated by Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton. Revised and Edited by Paul W. Esposito, and, The English Majority Text Version (EMTV) of the Holy Bible, New Testament. Copyright © 2002-2004 Paul W. Esposito.

Moab: Isaiah Devotional Journal 52

By Christina M Wilson. Published simultaneously at

Isaiah 25    Septuagint Modernized

Summary of Isaiah 25

Isaiah 25 breaks easily into three sections.

  1. Praise and worship (verses 1-5) Journal 48Journal 49
  2. A feast for all nations (verses 6-9) Journal 50Journal 51
  3. Judgment upon Moab (verses 10-12)

Who Is Moab in Isaiah 25:10-12?

The last mention of Moab in Isaiah falls in this verse, Isaiah 25:10. Moab then disappears from Isaiah. Who is this Moab? In what is clearly an end times (messianic) passage, why bring in Moab?

Three Sections of Isaianic Prophecies Against Moab

  1. The prophet first mentions Isaiah in the messianic context of chapter 11. This mention receives one verse.

Isaiah 11:14 But they [a spiritually reunited Ephraim and Judah] shall swoop down on the shoulder of the Philistines in the west, and together they shall plunder the people of the east. They shall put out their hand against Edom and Moab, and the Ammonites shall obey them. (ESV)

2. The second time Isaiah deals with Moab is lengthy. Two whole chapters describe its destruction.

Isaiah 15:1 An oracle concerning Moab. Because Ar of Moab is laid waste in a night, Moab is undone; because Kir of Moab is laid waste in a night, Moab is undone… 16:14 “In three years, like the years of a hired worker, the glory of Moab will be brought into contempt, in spite of all his great multitude, and those who remain will be very few and feeble.” (ESV)

3. The third mention is Isaiah 25:10-12, which is again, a messianic passage.

Isaiah 25:10 For the hand of the LORD will rest on this mountain, and Moab shall be trampled down in his place, as straw is trampled down in a dunghill.
11 And he will spread out his hands in the midst of it as a swimmer spreads his hands out to swim, but the LORD will lay low his pompous pride together with the skill of his hands.
12 And the high fortifications of his walls he will bring down, lay low, and cast to the ground, to the dust. (ESV)

After this, Isaiah remains quiet concerning Moab.

Two Thoughtful Questions

  1. When reading Isaiah 25, readers may ask a thoughtful question, “Why Moab?” Is Moab that important? Didn’t Israel have far worse and far stronger enemies than Moab? Enemies such as Assyria and Babylon? The answer would be yes. Babylon conquered Moab and led Israel into captivity. Moab never conquered Israel. So, why Moab?
  2. A second question also presents itself. Should a reader interpret these verses concretely or spiritually? In other words, does Isaiah speak of a physical Moab or Moab as a symbol?

The answer to question 1 will help find an answer to question 2.

Some Biblical History

Genesis records a sad history of Abraham’s nephew Lot. He chose the best land and wound up living in Sodom. Angels led Lot and his family out of there before God destroyed it. Genesis 19 then records how Lot’s firstborn daughter hatched a scheme of incest with her father. Genesis 19:37 states that she gave her son by her father the name Moab. Moab became the father of the nation of that name. The younger sister birthed Ammon by the same means. Ammon became father of the Ammonites.

Throughout a good portion of the book of Numbers and Deuteronomy, Moses and his people camped on the “plains of Moab.” These lie opposite Jericho, which lies on the other side of the Jordan River, just north of the Dead Sea. The Israelites’ presence there worried Balak, king of Moab. Numbers 22-24 record how Balak hired Balaam, a prophet heavily influenced by God, to curse the Israelites present with Moses. That plan failed tremendously.

Afterwards, Balak chose a different way to weaken God’s people–the way of sexual sin. Sexual sin in Old Testament Scripture often symbolizes infidelity and idolatry toward God.

Numbers 25:1 While Israel lived in Shittim, the people began to whore with the daughters of Moab. 2 These invited the people to the sacrifices of their gods, and the people ate and bowed down to their gods. 3 So Israel yoked himself to Baal of Peor. And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel. (ESV)

Revelation 2:14 But I have a few things against you: you have some there who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the sons of Israel, so that they might eat food sacrificed to idols and practice sexual immorality. (ESV)

See also 2 Peter 2:14-16.

Who Then Does Moab Represent?

1. First, Scripture identifies Moab as a people who consistently opposed God, his ways, and his people. Scripture does not record a turnaround, or repentance on their part. On the other hand, Isaiah prophesied that other Gentile nations would be saved, some of them former enemies. See, for example, Isaiah 2:2-411:1019:23-2524:1542:4-749:651:565:1; and 66:18-19.

2. Second, Isaiah prophesied a nearly total destruction of Moab in the passage from Isaiah 15:1-16:14. Yet he never mentions a comeback. Further, Zephaniah records the last mention of Moab in all Scripture. He prophesies a complete destruction.

 Zephaniah 2:9 Therefore, as I live,” declares the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, “Moab shall become like Sodom, and the Ammonites like Gomorrah, a land possessed by nettles and salt pits, and a waste forever. The remnant of my people shall plunder them, and the survivors of my nation shall possess them.” (ESV)

3. Therefore, common sense concludes that national, physical Moab (a concrete Moab) would not have recovered sufficiently by the time of Messiah to be destroyed yet again.

4. This conclusion indicates that the Moab of Isaiah 25:10-14 represents symbolically all the enemies of God and his Christ (Messiah) that ever existed or will exist. Many commentators hold this opinion (Isaiah 25:10 – Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary –

So Then, Is the Prophecy Concerning Moab Concrete or Spiritual?

So then, what do we make of Isaiah 25:10-12? Do these verses have a concrete, physical application or a spiritual? The preceding information indicates spiritual. This lines up well with the entire New Testament. “My kingdom is not of this world,” Jesus said (John 18:36). By that he meant that his kingdom is not about nations, governments, boundaries, or ethnicities. The kingdom of Christ is about Spirit, life, and truth. Isaiah prophesied about the coming kingdom of Christ, Messiah.


From the very beginning of the book, Isaiah mixes concrete-physical prophesies with spiritual. Chapter 1, for example, is largely concrete-physical. Isaiah seemed to be addressing the physical people who lived in Israel at the same time he did. On the other hand, Isaiah 2:1-4 appears to contain a more spiritual application. Christ is he who said, “My kingdom is not of this world” (John 18:36). That is not a matter of hermeneutics. Christ said, ” …true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father is seeking such people to worship him. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth” (John 4:23-24). In other words, Christ took no offense at spiritual meanings in Isaiah, and neither should we.

The Gospel Continues: Isaiah 25:6-9

Simultaneously published at The Gospel Continues: Isaiah Devotional Journal 51 –

By Christina Wilson on 

Isaiah 25    Septuagint Modernized

The Gospel Continues: Isaiah 25:6-9

The modern era gives us the blessing of many biblical translations. The (ICB) (1) provides a straightforward translation of  Isaiah 25:6-9. I call it the Gospel of Isaiah.

6 The Lord of heaven’s armies will give us a feast. It will be on this mountain for all people. It will be a feast with the best food and wine. The meat and wine will be the finest. 7 On this mountain God will destroy the veil that covers all nations. This veil, called “death,” covers all peoples. 8 But God will destroy death forever. The Lord God will wipe away every tear from every face. God will take away the shame of his people from the earth. The Lord has spoken. 9 At that time people will say, “Our God is doing this! We have trusted in him, and he has come to save us. We have been trusting our Lord. So we will rejoice and be happy when he saves us.”

How Is This Gospel?

I. God Is Spirit–Before Christ, People Were Not

Many of the people who followed and spoke to Jesus made the understandable mistake of living in a concrete-only world. That is, most people achieved only a physical understanding of God. They weren’t capable of more, being “dead” (spiritually) in their sins (Ephesians 2:1). They worshipped God in tangible ways only. For example, they sacrificed bleating sheep and flying birds (Luke 2:22-24). They weighed out a certain amount of cumin and other spices (Matthew 23:23). They traveled to specific locations (John 4:20) to worship. A famous teacher such as Nicodemus could only fathom being “born again” as climbing back into his mother’s womb (John 3:3-4). In the Old Testament, God intended his worshipers to express their devotion in concrete, material ways.

But Jesus inaugurated a new creation in a New Testament. He preached a spiritual gospel. We need to back up in order to understand this. God created humanity in his image. God is Spirit. But when Adam sinned, humanity suffered death and separation from God. God turned them out from his presence. Humanity lost its one link with God–living in his physical presence in the Garden. Separated from God, only material, touchable flesh remained. From that point forward, God taught his people with physical, material items. Abel’s sacrifice of an animal pleased God. Later, through Moses, God commanded that they build him a special tent (the tabernacle) and worship him with sacrificial animals. Only a few prophets heard from God directly.

II. Jesus Brings the Spirit and Life

But then, in God’s perfect timing (Galatians 4:4), Jesus upended the entire system. Jesus came to bring life, and to bring it abundantly (John 10:10). The “life” Jesus brings is his Spirit, God’s Spirit (John 6:63). Why did Paul always ask new believers whether they had received the Spirit when they believed? (Acts 19:2, 6). He asked, because the Spirit is so important. The Spirit is life. There is no other life (John 6:63).

Romans 7:6 But now we are released from the law, having died to that which held us captive, so that we serve in the new way of the Spirit and not in the old way of the written code. (ESV)

2 Corinthians 5:17 Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come. (ESV)

The word Gospel means in Greek “good news.” Yes, it definitely is good news that in Christ God forgave our sins and cleansed us. But good news gets even better. The best good news is God cleansed us for a reason. He forgave our sins so that he could send his Holy Spirit to live in us and among us. And, because we have the Spirit of God–because his Spirit makes us alive–now we can enter his presence again and have fellowship with him. That is the truly good news the Gospel brings.

1 John 1:3b …our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ.
4 And we are writing these things so that our joy may be complete. (ESV)

John 17:23a I in them and you in me… (ESV)

Hebrews 10:19 Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the holy places by the blood of Jesus, 20 by the new and living way that he opened for us through the curtain, that is, through his flesh, 21 and since we have a great priest over the house of God, 22 let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water. (ESV)

III. How Do I Get the Spirit?

Nicodemus asked the same question. He wanted to know how someone could be born again (John 3:9). Jesus answers elsewhere. His answer is simple: just ask God.

Luke 11:9 And I tell you, ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and it will be opened to you. 10 For everyone who asks receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks it will be opened. 11 What father among you, if his son asks for a fish, will instead of a fish give him a serpent; 12 or if he asks for an egg, will give him a scorpion? 13 If you then, who are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him!” (ESV)

IV. Back to Isaiah

Isaiah the Old Testament prophet saw Christ and predicted all these things (Isaiah 6:1; 1 Peter 1:10-12). When we overcome our fear of “spiritualizing” this Old Testament passage, we begin to see what Isaiah saw. He saw the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Seeing with spiritual eyes is a good thing, not a bad thing, as some might teach (John 20:29; 1 Peter 1:8).

IV. The Feast: What Food Does the Lord Provide?

What kind of feast is it (Isaiah 25:6)?

FIRST, God invites everyone. He invites people from all nations.

SECOND, he spreads his feast on a mountain that is large enough for the whole world to see (Proverbs 1:20-21; Matthew 22:9). Jesus himself “spiritualized” the mountain (John 4:20-24). Daniel saw it (Daniel 2:44-45). The mountain is the mountain of the Lord (Psalm 48:1-2; 99:9), the kingdom of Christ (Matthew 16:18).

THIRD, what food will God serve? The food upon which all Christians feast is the Lord Christ himself.

John 6:32 Jesus then said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread from heaven.

35 Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me shall not hunger, and whoever believes in me shall never thirst.

47 Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever believes has eternal life.
48 I am the bread of life.

51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. And the bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.”

53 So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. 54 Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. 55 For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. 56 Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him. 57 As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so whoever feeds on me, he also will live because of me.

63 It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh is no help at all. The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life. (John 6:32-66 ESV)

An evangelistic appeal–

 Hebrews 3:7 Therefore, as the Holy Spirit says, “Today, if you hear his voice, 8 do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion, on the day of testing in the wilderness, (ESV)

FOURTH, when will God serve this feast? He serves it right now, already, to all who believe. The message of John the Apostle is that Jesus is the Christ, the long-awaited Messiah (John 20:30-31) and that all who believe in him feast on joyful fellowship with God right now (1 John 1:2-4). There is also a “not yet” aspect to God’s feast, namely the marriage supper of the Lamb. That feast will be served at the moment when God destroys death and dying forever (Isaiah 25:7-8; 1 Corinthians 15:54-55) and wipes away every tear from every face (Isaiah 25:8; Revelation 7:17; 21:4).

FINALLY, what should our response be? Verse 9 tells it all.

Isaiah 25:9 At that time they will say, “Look, here is our God! We waited for him and he delivered us. Here is the LORD! We waited for him. Let’s rejoice and celebrate his deliverance!” (NET)


The Holy Spirit packed Isaiah 25:6-9 with a tremendously powerful message. My prayer is that those who read the good news God presents here will believe, investigate, and share it with others. We want the message of hope in Christ to spread throughout this fallen world. The end of the ages will come. Christ draws near. Let’s help bring as many people as possible to his wonderful wedding feast.

Isaiah 25:1 O Lord God, I will glorify You, I will sing to Your name; for You have done wonderful things, even an ancient and faithful counsel. Amen. (CAB, LXE)

So be it, Lord. Come quickly (Revelation 22:20). Amen (2)


1 “Scriptures quoted from the International Children’s Bible, New Century Version, copyright © 1986, 1988 by Word Publishing, Dallas, Texas 75039. Used by permission.”

2 Those wishing to read what scholars have written concerning this passage may find the following link quite useful:

A Very Gospel Passage: Isaiah Devotional Journal 50

Published also by Christina Wilson at on 2021-04-20

Isaiah 25    Septuagint Modernized

A Gospel Passage: Isaiah 25

Isaiah 25 is an end times passage. It is also a very gospel passage. Most people alive today likely will not experience the second coming before they die. However, the truths of this gospel passage apply to all believers now.

Recap: What Are the Signs?

There are several signs that indicate Isaiah 25, especially in the Septuagint, is an end times passage and a gospel passage. By “end times,” I mean the very end. I do not see any indications that this chapter is millennial.

  • First, we saw that Isaiah 24:1-20 describes the final shaking of the whole earth. Isaiah 24:20 is definitive, “…and it shall fall, and shall not be able to rise.” (See Devotional Journal 46 for more details on this section.) A proposed, though not proven, millennium would need to occur before the final judgment.
  • Second, Isaiah 24:21-23, especially in the Septuagint, describes the church age. Isaiah 24:21-22 (LXE) corresponds to Revelation 20:1-3. (See Devotional Journal 47.) This jumping back to a prior time frame is characteristic of Isaiah.
  • Third, the vocabulary throughout Isaiah 24 indicates a “whole world” event. (See again Devotional Journal 46.)
  • Next, Isaiah 25:1 opens in celebration of the events of chapter 24, the messianic and end times chapter.
  • We saw that the “ancient and faithful counsel” goes back to the very beginning, before creation. Then, after creation, in the garden, God gave Eve the promise of a Savior for the whole world. (See prior post Devotional Journal 49.) When Isaiah speaks his “Amen!” he’s agreeing with a counsel that reaches far wider that the main characters of a proposed millennium.

Why the Celebration?

Isaiah 25 continues in a smooth connection from chapter 24. We see the prophet in Isaiah 25:1, as spokesperson for the people, celebrating God’s victory. The remainder of this short chapter expands on the causes of their celebration.

City? What City?

For You have made cities a heap, even cities made strong that their foundations should not fall; the city of ungodly men shall not be built forever. (Isaiah 25:2, Modernized Septuagint)

The Septuagint and Masoretic texts fairly match in verse two. (There is a difference in plurals and singulars.) But what cities are these? Scripture often uses symbols. Because Isaiah speaks of the judgment of the end times, the city (or cities) represent all the evil and wickedness of the fallen human heart gathered in one place. Moab, in verse 10, is a similar symbol. We are reminded of how John the Apostle uses Babylon as a symbol for evil in Revelation 18:1-24. The phrase, “shall not be built forever,” (“it will never be rebuilt” ESV) is another indicator of the end times finality of this passage. This symbol represents the final destruction of evil. It will never again gather together in one place.

Verse 3

Septuagint: 3 Therefore shall the poor people bless You, and cities of injured men shall bless You. (CAB)

Masoretic: 3 Therefore strong peoples will glorify you; cities of ruthless nations will fear you. (ESV)

The two versions just quoted appear at first glance to be nearly opposite each other. However, in their own contexts, the overall flow of each brings them into agreement in light of the whole passage. The Septuagint here does seem to better continue the thought of verses 1-2.

Verses 2-12

Isaiah 25:2-5 flows smoothly in the Septuagint. The sense of the verses holds together with no sudden jerks. Verses 3-5 describe the weakness of the poor people, as contrasted with the strength of the evil. The prophet points out in verse 4 how the Lord God will deliver the poor from wicked men. Interestingly, however, verse 5 indicates that God had given them over to the wicked in the first place. Prior chapters in Isaiah developed this theme. God uses the wicked to discipline his own people. Then he delivers them. (See, for example, Isaiah chapters 3-5. See also Habakkuk’s complete explanation in three chapters.)

The Feast and the Mountain…Already, Not Yet

6 And the Lord of hosts shall make a feast for all the nations; on this mount they shall drink gladness, they shall drink wine; 7 they shall anoint themselves with ointment in this mountain. Impart all these things to the nations; for this is God’s counsel upon all the nations.

The phrase “already…not yet” has circulated for some time. It refers to Old Testament prophecies, such as the one we are considering here in Isaiah 25. Christians in the current era since Christ’s ascension experience the fulfillment of the prophecies “already.” They experience now the spiritual truths which Isaiah describes. And yet, Christ promised that he would return and gather his flock to live with him forever. At that time, he will permanently destroy all evil. “Not yet” describes that period of time.


I. Christians now the world over celebrate a feast in Christ’s kingdom. They truly do “drink gladness” (vs 6) and the “wine” of joy and of Holy Communion (John 17:13, et al). The wine of communion anticipates the Lord’s return (Luke 22:18-20).

II. What is “this mount”? The mountain right now is the spiritual, symbolic seat of Christ’s kingdom. (Please take time to read the following verses: Daniel 2:35, 44; Isaiah 30:29; Micah 4:2; and Zechariah 8:3.) In the “already,” the mountain of the Lord is not a literal mountain. Scripture is not opposed to symbolism. For example, Paul used symbolism freely in Galatians 4:35-31 when speaking of mountains. Further, the mountain in Hebrews 12:22-24 is a spiritual mountain. The mountain of Christ’s kingdom is where Christians live and worship now.

III. The “ointment” of anointing is the Holy Spirit. God forgave sins through Jesus’s offering of himself upon the cross. His death and resurrection accomplished purification for humankind. But the purpose of purification stretched beyond cleanliness itself. The purification of Christ’s offering prepared the way for a return of fellowship with the great God Almighty. The BIG CHANGE recorded in the New Testament is the anointing of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God, and the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of Christ. The presence of the Holy Spirit in the hearts of believers is the means of fellowship with God.


  • The Apostle John first explained the transition from dead materialism to living Spirit to Nicodemus (John 3:1-8). Next, he explained the same transition in different words to the woman at the well (John 4:13-14, 20-26). He explained it again in the parable of the wineskins in Mark 2:22. The gospel of John contains many references to the coming Spirit (John 7:39; 14:16-18, 23, 26; 15:26; 16:13-15).
  • In John 17:13 and 23 Jesus prays for the fellowship between humankind and God that the offering of his death will accomplish.
  • The book of Acts records the importance of the gift of the Holy Spirit to all believers (Acts 1:8; 2:38; 8:14-17).
  • The Apostle Paul expressed great concern that worshipers of Christ receive the anointing of the Holy Spirit (Acts 19:1-6; Romans 8:5-17; Galatians 3:2-3, 13-14). 
  • Finally, near the end of Scripture, John again relates the wonderful gift of the Holy Spirit, the “anointing” of Isaiah 25:7 (1 John 3:24; 4:13; 5:6-8).  

IV. “Impart all these things to the nations; for this is God’s counsel upon all the nations” (Isaiah 25:7b)

Verse 7b strongly indicates that Isaiah is not speaking of a special “millennial” period of time in this passage. The so-named “millennium” supposes itself to be a time period of special favor to the Jewish nation in particular, above all others. But the joy of Christ includes all believers of every nation, tribe, family, people, and tongue. The joy of Christ for all peoples began with his resurrection and will continue to his Second Coming, the end of the age. The New Testament is entirely clear on this point. 

In verse 7, Isaiah repeats what he had spoken in verse 1, concerning God’s “ancient and faithful counsel.” Here, he bluntly states that this counsel is to and upon “all the nations.” Surely that includes more than a supposed “millennial” Israel? The reader can find more on the “ancient and faithful counsel” in Isaiah Devotional Journal 48 and Journal 49.

Verses 8-12

To Be Continued

An Ancient and Faithful Counsel: Isaiah Devotional Journal 49

See also An Ancient and Faithful Counsel: Isaiah Devotional Journal 48 –

Isaiah 25    Septuagint Modernized

Celebratory Songs for “In That Day” (Part Two): An “Ancient and Faithful Counsel”

Isaiah 25:1 O Lord God, I will glorify You, I will sing to Your name; for You have done wonderful things, even an ancient and faithful counsel. Amen. 2 For You have made cities a heap, even cities made strong that their foundations should not fall; the city of ungodly men shall not be built forever. 3 Therefore shall the poor people bless You, and cities of injured men shall bless You. 4 For You have been a helper to every lowly city, and a shelter to them that were disheartened by reason of poverty; You shall deliver them from wicked men; You have been a shelter for them that thirst, and a refreshing air to injured men.

“An Ancient and Faithful Counsel”

In Isaiah’s prophecy he will sing and glorify the Lord. The Lord has done wonderful things. They are his “ancient and true (faithful) counsel.” How ancient? This counsel goes back even before time began. Later, God spoke it to Eve, concerning her sacred offspring. He would crush the head of the serpent (Genesis 3:15). Yes, Isaiah 25, the entire chapter, is messianic. Its scope and grandeur travel to the very end of history where time ends and eternity begins. All humankind who favor God and hope in his Christ will receive the blessings described.

Related Scripture

The theme of God’s “ancient and faithful counsel” abounds in Scripture.

Isaiah 4:2 And in that day God shall shine gloriously in counsel on the earth, to exalt and glorify the remnant of Israel. (LXE, CAB)

Isaiah 9:6 For a Child is born to us, and a Son is given to us, whose government is upon His shoulder; and His name is called the Messenger of great counsel; for I will bring peace upon the princes, and health to Him. (LXE, CAB)

Acts 2:23 this Jesus, delivered up according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God, you crucified and killed by the hands of lawless men. (ESV)

Romans 16:25 Now to him who is able to strengthen you according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery that was kept secret for long ages (ESV)

1 Corinthians 2:7 But we impart a secret and hidden wisdom of God, which God decreed before the ages for our glory. 8 None of the rulers of this age understood this, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. (ESV)

Ephesians 1:11 In him we have obtained an inheritance, having been predestined according to the purpose of him who works all things according to the counsel of his will, (ESV)

Colossians 1:25-27 of which I became a minister according to the stewardship from God that was given to me for you, to make the word of God fully known, 26 the mystery hidden for ages and generations but now revealed to his saints. 27 To them God chose to make known how great among the Gentiles are the riches of the glory of this mystery, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory. (ESV)

We Shouldn’t Mourn

We should not mourn that Isaiah 25 is not a millennial prophecy. Clearly, I believe that all of Scripture teaches that God, in his most basic promise in Christ, always intended to include the whole world. Yes, God most definitely used Israel greatly (in spite of themselves) for a long period of time. Praise God and bless Israel. When God’s purpose through this people reached his intermediate goal (the birth of Messiah), he moved on to his final goal. God always intended to save all humankind, irregardless of race (Galatians 3:28; Revelation 7:9). This most certainly includes descendants of Israel (Romans 9-11). But God created humans as one race. He introduced ethnicity at Babel, when the one people sinned (Genesis 11:1-9). 

Why should it disappoint us that Old Testament Israel is no longer “special” in New Testament days? That it is no longer the only child? (See the parable of the prodigal son, Luke 15:11-32). Isaiah rejoiced when he learned that God’s purpose primarily includes all people.

Isaiah 54:2 “Enlarge the place of your tent, and let the curtains of your habitations be stretched out; do not hold back; lengthen your cords and strengthen your stakes. 3 For you will spread abroad to the right and to the left, and your offspring will possess the nations and will people the desolate cities. (ESV)

Who are these offspring? Paul tells us.

Galatians 3:29 And if you are Christ’s, then you are Abraham’s offspring, heirs according to promise. (ESV)

Isaiah Didn’t Mourn

Paul knew his Bible well. He knew that God’s greater promise brought joy to his prophet Isaiah.

Isaiah 56:3 Let not the foreigner who has joined himself to the LORD say, “The LORD will surely separate me from his people”; and let not the eunuch say, “Behold, I am a dry tree.”
4 For thus says the LORD: “To the eunuchs who keep my Sabbaths, who choose the things that please me and hold fast my covenant, 5 I will give in my house and within my walls a monument and a name better than sons and daughters; I will give them an everlasting name that shall not be cut off. 6 “And the foreigners who join themselves to the LORD, to minister to him, to love the name of the LORD, and to be his servants, everyone who keeps the Sabbath and does not profane it, and holds fast my covenant– 7 these I will bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer; their burnt offerings and their sacrifices will be accepted on my altar; for my house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples.” (ESV)

Chapters 25-27 in Isaiah contain such celebratory songs. They are for joy and gladness, not mourning.

A Personal Analogy

When I taught second grade for many years, I sometimes taught the students to dance. I learned quickly not to attempt to teach the whole class of two dozen students all at once, even though that was my primary goal–that everyone should learn the dance.

And so I began with one student. All could watch and see. When that student had learned the steps, I brought in another student, then a third, then two more, and so forth. Eventually, the entire class learned the dance. I had achieved my goal. I achieved it in an orderly fashion, not chaotically.

I envision God’s calling of Abraham to be analogous to the method I just described. How would God know when he had achieved the first portion of his ultimate goal? He would know it was time to move on when history saw Messiah born, verified, crucified, risen, and ascended into heaven. At that point, it was time for him to draw in the whole class, the whole world. God will never exclude Israel. It’s just that God’s purpose has always been so much larger and grander than this one single ethnicity. And aren’t we glad for that?

Songs for “In That Day”: Isaiah Devotional Journal 48

See also Songs for “In That Day”: Isaiah Devotional Journal 48 –

By Christina Wilson on 

Isaiah 25    Septuagint Modernized

Celebratory Songs for “In That Day” (Part One)

Isaiah 26:1 In that day they shall sing this song in the land of Judea; Behold a strong city; and he shall make salvation its wall and bulwark. (Septuagint)

The celebratory songs for “in that day” begin with Isaiah 25:1, even though the prophet doesn’t use that exact phrase until chapter 26. Imagine the scene in the movie, Harry Potter, when the dark lord is finally, totally, and forever banished. Isaiah’s celebration is much greater than that. Or, think of any city when the favored troops have completely vanquished the oppressive enemy. Isaiah’s songs for “in that day” are that kind of celebration.


I think it’s fair to say that Isaiah had never heard of a period of time called the “millennium.” In Isaiah, there are three basic time zones: 1) his day, including everything up to the incarnation, 2) the day of Christ, including his incarnation and up to and including everything before his second coming, and 3) the final day when Christ comes again and the enemy is forever, finally, totally, destroyed.

Unfortunately for us, as readers, Isaiah doesn’t clearly label his time frames. Nor are they always exactly discernible. Consider for example Isaiah 22:20-25.

Isaiah 22:20 In that day I will call my servant Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, 22 And I will place on his shoulder the key of the house of David. He shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open. (ESV) 

We know from Revelation 3:7 that this passage is about Christ.

Revelation 3:7 “And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: ‘The words of the holy one, the true one, who has the key of David, who opens and no one will shut, who shuts and no one opens.” (ESV)

But what is the time frame in the Revelation passage? Wasn’t it true of Christ during his incarnation? And after his ascension? And into his glorious eternity? Similarly, none of these time frames are ruled out in Isaiah 22:20-25.

Already, Not Yet

There is a phrase to describe prophecy’s fulfillment that is making its rounds in Christian circles. This phrase is “already, not yet.” The idea is that much Old Testament prophecy, including Isaiah, has already been fulfilled in Christ. He is already crucified, buried, risen, and ascended into heaven. There he sits at the right hand of God (Acts 5:31). But the very end of the ages, when the eternal kingdom is ushered in, is “not yet.”

Scripture is not clear on the exact timing of the transition from “already”, that is–right now– to “not yet.”

 Acts 1:6 So when they had come together, they asked him, “Lord, will you at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?” 7 He said to them, “It is not for you to know times or seasons that the Father has fixed by his own authority. (ESV)

And, in the days of Isaiah and other Old Testament prophets, that timing was even less clear. Peter bluntly states how much was revealed to them.

 1 Peter 1:10 Concerning this salvation, the prophets who prophesied about the grace that was to be yours searched and inquired carefully, 11 inquiring what person or time the Spirit of Christ in them was indicating when he predicted the sufferings of Christ and the subsequent glories. 12 It was revealed to them that they were serving not themselves but you, in the things that have now been announced to you through those who preached the good news to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven, things into which angels long to look. (ESV)

The Timing Not Clear

An honest evaluation of Peter’s words reveals that the timing revealed to the Old Testament prophets was general, not specific. For them, it was plenty exciting just to know that the Christ would come!

While I am not endorsing a particular faith tradition, I often like The Orthodox Study Bible (1). This is because its translation is based on the Septuagint (Old Greek translation). And, I like the Septuagint, because it is often easier to find Christ in its pages than in translations based on the Masoretic textual tradition (2). Here is what The Orthodox Study Bible writes for Revelation 20:2.

20:2 Though most did not, a few early Fathers and writers believed in a literal thousand year binding of Satan and reign of Christ and the saints on earth (vv. 2-7). The Church, however, authoritatively rejected this teaching (called chiliasm) at the Second Ecumenical Council. In apocalyptic literature, numbers have symbolic significance. “Thousand” is often used in the Scriptures to denote a long period time, a great quantity, completion, perfection, thoroughness (Job 9:32Pt 3:8). Here, a thousand years (vv. 2-7) is interpreted as the Church age, when Jesus reigns on earth in those who believe. It is that era between the first and second comings of Christ, also called the “last times,” when Satan’s effectiveness at deceit is restricted through the Cross and Resurrection of Christ, and the saints share in Christ’s earthly reign through the Church. For these persecuted Christians threatened by martyrdom, this is a consoling hope.

Therefore, anyone who points to Isaiah chapters 25-27 and states that this is the “millennium,” is reading into Scripture. This is because the “millennium” is a word that Scripture never uses. And, if such a distinct period is not clear in Revelation, then it certainly wouldn’t be clear in Isaiah. But, good news! Chapters 25-27 in Isaiah are definitely about the day of our Lord, Jesus Christ.


1 Academic Community of St. Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology, Elk Grove, California. The Orthodox Study Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2008.

2 A brief introductory post concerning my use of the Septuagint is available here: Which Bible Should I Use? –   

Songs for “In That Day” To Be Continued 

Second Messianic Passage: Isaiah Devotional Journal 47

Isaiah 24    Link to LXE Modernized

–continued from Part One Simultaneously published at

Second Messianic Passage (Give Allegiance to the King: Part 2)

RECAP: Isaiah 24 is an amazing chapter. He summarizes his entire message to this point. This chapter especially summarizes his judgments against the nations from chapter 13 forward. It also serves as an introduction to the more detailed messianic portions later in the book. The vista of Isaiah 24 is enormous. His vision stretches to the end of time. This is the first lengthy eschatological (end times) passage in the book. He also zooms in on the “church age.” The chapter is a call for all peoples to give their allegiance to the King who wins. Find the link to the first messianic passage HERE. This post covers the second messianic passage.

Second Messianic Passage: Verses 21-23

There is a very large break following verse 20 that is important not to miss. Verse 20 strikes the final hammer blow to the earth.

Isaiah 24:20 The earth staggers like a drunken man; it sways like a hut; its transgression lies heavy upon it, and it falls, and will not rise again. (ESV)

Following this phrase, “The earth… shall not be able to rise,” (Septuagint) Isaiah writes:

Isaiah 24:21 And God shall bring His hand upon the host of heaven, and upon the kings of the earth. 22 And they shall gather the multitude thereof into prisons, and they shall shut them into a stronghold; after many generations they shall be visited. 23 And the brick shall decay, and the wall shall fall; for the Lord shall reign from out of Zion, and out of Jerusalem, and shall be glorified before His elders. (CAB, LXE)

This is the second messianic passage in Isaiah 24.

How Is This Verse Messianic?

At first glance, verse 21 may appear to belong with the previous judgment section. How can this be the first verse of a second messianic passage? Yes, it can seem like more of the same that went before. However, there are indicators that a new section has begun.

Isaiah writes abruptly

Isaiah’s main characters are: the rebellious and the submissive, the loyal and the disloyal, the people and the Lord. Just as in a movie or in the book of Revelation, Isaiah’s “camera” switches back and forth between his main characters.

  • In the Masoretic text tradition (nearly all of our major translations) the signal phrase is, “On [or in] that day…” (ESV). This phrase often refers to an event in a messianic timeframe. See Isaiah 2:11, 17; 11:10; Hosea 2:16; Amos 9:11; Micah 4:6; Zechariah 2:11; John 14:20 and 16:26.
  • In the Septuagint, which I follow in this blog, the signal word is a simple, “And.” There are two “ands” in Greek–a hard “and” and a soft “and.” The soft “and” is a transition word that has multiple uses. The hard “and” (καὶ) often signals a major section break. See, for example, Isaiah 24:12. For several prior verses in this example, Isaiah had been talking about people. In verse 12, he switches to speaking about cities.
  • In verse 24:21, Isaiah signals a change of topic with the introductory word, “And.”
Strong New Testament Parallels

Verses 21 and 22

Isaiah 24:21 And God shall bring His hand upon the host of heaven, and upon the kings of the earth. 22 And they shall gather the multitude thereof into prisons, and they shall shut them into a stronghold; after many generations they shall be visited.

Revelation 20:1 Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, holding in his hand the key to the bottomless pit and a great chain. 2 And he seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years, 3 and threw him into the pit, and shut it and sealed it over him, so that he might not deceive the nations any longer, until the thousand years were ended. After that he must be released for a little while. (ESV)

 Luke 10:18 And he said to them, “I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven. 19 Behold, I have given you authority to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy, and nothing shall hurt you. 20 Nevertheless, do not rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven.” (ESV)

We live in the missionary era. The Gospel goes forth largely unimpeded (yet often not without great sacrifice and suffering). People from many nations hear God’s Word. Lives are changed. Neither Satan, nor the kings of the earth, have power to prevent the Word of Jesus Christ from going forth. All three of the above passages describe this messianic period of time. We are currently living “in that day.” This is the day when we show our allegiance to Christ our King.

Isaiah describes different events

Notice the finality of Isaiah 24:20, “It [the earth] shall fall, and shall not be able to rise.” (LXE) The ESV reads, “It falls, and will not rise again.” Yet, this second messianic passage, verses 21-22, speaks of period of time when the host of heaven and kings are to be shut up in prison, only to be visited, or punished, “after many generations.” But, this would not be possible if the earth had already fallen, never to rise again. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that by using the word “And… “, Isaiah has changed subjects. He presents, as it were, certain material from a different camera angle. The entire chapter is eschatological, and there are different sections in it. The judgment sections refer to the very end, while the messianic passages refer to a time period the Masoretic texts describe as, “in that day.”

Similarity with Ephesians

Septuagint verse 23 meshes extremely well with the proposition that the passage from verse 21 forward is messianic. The time period is the Christian era following the resurrection of Christ, as presented above.

Isaiah 24:23. And the brick shall decay, and the wall shall fall; for the Lord shall reign from out of Zion, and out of Jerusalem, and shall be glorified before His elders.

Ephesians 2:14 For he himself is our peace, who has made us both one and has broken down in his flesh the dividing wall of hostility (ESV)

The Masoretic textual tradition differs greatly in the first portion of this verse. “Then the moon will be confounded and the sun ashamed,… ” (Isaiah 24:23 ESV). Both traditions agree on the second portion of the verse.

The Main Point

Commentators present differing views in how they interpret the details of Isaiah 24. Translations do indeed make a difference. However, the main point is clear. Isaiah presents a vision far in the future from his point in time. The whole earth will go the way of the nations he presented in chapters 13-23. There is no hope apart from God, the Lord. There will be a remnant, a small number “left over.” These will not be judged, or condemned. For those who place their trust in the Lord who reigns out of Zion, Christ, there is hope. These will see his glory on full display.

A Time of Choice

Hebrews 3:7 Therefore, as the Holy Spirit says, “Today, if you hear his voice, 8 do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion,… (Hebrews 3:7-8 ESV)

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