Category Archives: Colossians Bible Study By Week
Greetings from the Sisters
7 Michele will tell you all about our activities. She is a beloved sister and faithful minister
and fellow servant in the Lord. 8 I have sent her to you for this very purpose, that you may
know how we are and that she may encourage your hearts, 9 and with her Patricia, our
faithful and beloved sister, who is one of you. They will tell you of everything that has
taken place here. 10 Estelle my fellow prayer warrior greets you, and Diana the co-pastor
with Becca (concerning whom you have received instructions–if she comes to you,
welcome her warmly), 11 and Marguerite, who is called Margie. These women have
encouraged me and been a great comfort to me. 12 Norma, who is one of you, a servant
of Christ Jesus, greets you, always struggling on your behalf in her prayers, that you may
stand mature and fully assured in all the will of God. 13 For I bear her witness that she has
worked hard for you and for those in North Bound and with Pastor Sneed. 14 Linda the
beloved great grandmother greets you, as does Sandy. 15 Give my greetings to the sisters
with Connie on Monday and to all the women who meet together in her Life Group.
16 And when this letter has been read among you, have it also read in Connie’s group; and
see that you also read the letter from Connie. 17 And say to Wendy, “See that you fulfill
the ministry that you have received in the Lord.” 18 I, Christina, write this greeting with my
own hand. Remember my difficulties. Grace be with you.
(NIV) Colossians 4:2 Devote yourselves to prayer…
Sometimes–not always, but sometimes–a word study is a fruitful way to dig meaning from a verse. I believe this to be the case with Colossians 4:2.
“Devote yourselves” to prayer is used by the NIV, NAU, and NET, as opposed to the “continue steadfastly” of the older KJV and newer ESV. The NKJV approaches the NIV and NET with “continue earnestly.”
Why do I prefer “devote yourselves” over “continue steadfastly”?
I believe this translation better captures the author Paul, a passionate, loving Christian who does nothing halfway.
1. Devotion speaks of passionate love.
- a lover for his or her mate
- an artist for their art
- an athlete who endures much suffering for their sport or skill (dancers, gymnasts, mountain bikers, long distance hikers and so on)
- a father or mother for their child
- some children for their parents
- a writer for their writing
- a photographer for their photography
- a pastor for his flock
- a missionary for his sheep
- Christ for His church
- Father God for the world
2. Grammar: “Devote yourselves” already implies the present active imperative (an ongoing command) form of the Greek verb.
- One cannot practice devotion without ongoing (steadfast) endurance.
- The ESV on the other hand must pack into “continue steadfastly” the full force of the main verb (for which see below), leaving out all the beautiful connotations of devotion.
3. While steadfastness is a virtue, the connotations of “continue steadfastly” do not capture Paul’s passionate intent of eager, energetic enthusiasm, but rather–
- an endurance of duty not necessarily accompanied by joy and faith of fulfillment
- it leaves out many of the positive connotations of “devote yourselves”
4. The meaning and other biblical uses of the Greek word itself.
A Look at the Greek Behind “devote yourselves”
The Greek form of the English “devote yourselves” is προσκαρτερεῖτε (pros-kar-te-ree-tay). Grammatically it is a command for ongoing action. There is a prefix προσ (pros), and the command form built from the base word καρτερέω (kar-te-ray-oh), which comes from an adjective meaning “strong,” which in turn comes from the noun κράτος (kra-tohss), meaning strength.
κράτος (kra-tohss) appears in Greek (the Septuagint translation) Old Testament verses which speak of strength or might.
Psalm 62:11 …power belongs to God…
(Septuagint) Job 12:16 With him are strength and power: he has knowledge and understanding.
(Septuagint) Isaiah 22:21 and I will put on him thy robe, and I will grant him thy crown with power…
We see this word κράτος (kra-tohss) in the New Testament in verses such as:
(ESV) Luke 1:51 He has shown strength with his arm…
(ESV) Colossians 1:11 May you be strengthened with all power, according to his glorious might, for all endurance and patience with joy,
(NET) 1 Timothy 6:16 He alone possesses immortality and lives in unapproachable light, whom no human has ever seen or is able to see. To him be honor and eternal power!
(NET) Revelation 5:13 Then I heard every creature– in heaven, on earth, under the earth, in the sea, and all that is in them– singing: “To the one seated on the throne and to the Lamb be praise, honor, glory, and ruling power forever and ever!”
The prefix προσ (pros) generally means a motion toward someone or something. It can also mean attachment to something in space or time. It can further mean a reference to something, where the thing is the verb that follows it. The concept of “continuing,” in some of the English translations (KJV, NKJV, and ESV), while certainly in agreement with the present imperative (ongoing command) form of the verb, derives more from the prefix προσ (pros) than the verb tense.
So, an expanded translation of Τῇ προσευχῇ προσκαρτερεῖτε (tee pros-ev-khee pros-kar-te-ree-tay), in addition to 1) devote yourselves to prayer (NIV) , 2) continue earnestly in prayer (NKJV), and 3) continue steadfastly in prayer (ESV), might be the following:
1) apply your strength fixedly in prayer, 2) always apply your full strength mightily and powerfully in prayer.
Paul says the Colossians should always stand ready to give themselves fully and powerfully to prayer. They should never hold any part of themselves back when they are praying. They should give prayer all they’ve got. He asks that while they are doing this to include himself and his ministry in their prayers, so that God would open doors for him and his friends to tell others the good news of Jesus Christ.
What about me? Do I pray for God’s Kingdom according to Paul’s command to the Colossians?
How does being subordinate to her husband in the context of his leadership within the family unit benefit a wife?
Colossians 3:18 Wives, submit yourselves to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord.
The Greek word used in (Colossians 3:18) for the ESV’s “submit” is a passive form of “ὑποτάσσω”, [ee-poe-tássoe, according to the modern Greek pronunciation as recorded in Bible.is] and is translated in the NIV as, “submit yourselves.” The NAU says, “be subject to”, and the NET “submit to.” The Message Bible, a newer paraphrase, translates the entire verse, “Wives, understand and support your husbands by submitting to them in ways that honor the Master.” My own translation would be, “Wives, yield your right of way to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord.” Yielding one’s right of way is a phrase which I think best captures Paul’s use of the Greek word “ὑποτάσσω”. Let’s take a closer look at the word.
First of all, the Greek word does not mean what our collective cultural dictionary says concerning our words “submit” and “submissive”. English vernacular has developed over the generations a negative connotation for these words, which includes the image of someone who is spineless, a wimp, passive, dependent, and possibly even cringing. I believe that much of this connotation has developed as a backlash to the Christian right’s interpretation of this very verse.
“‘Uποτάσσω” is built of two parts–the prefix “ὑπο” (hupo, as it is often pronounced) and the root “τάσσω” (tássoe). “τάσσω” alone means “to place or station a person or thing in a fixed spot,” (Greek-English Lexicon, Arndt and Gingrich) as, for example, in a business or governmental position or office. A second, similar meaning is to “order, fix, determine, appoint.” The Greek meaning and context carry no negative connotations. Order is the rule of society. In society, organizations, businesses, institutions of health, the military, the government, the court system, a classroom, a school, a district, states, the nation, and so on, must be ordered or they cease to function. Nearly everything one can think of carries the quality of order with it. We live in an ordered universe.
Next, “ὑπο” is a prefix that means “under.” “‘Uποτάσσω” (hupotάssoe) in the passive imperative (command) form found in Colossians 1:18 means to be “subordinated” under someone else in the hierarchy of order, just as a nurse is subordinate to a physician, a private to a sergeant, the vice president to the president, and Christ the Son to God the Father. Negative connotations in the context of Colossians, as in all of Paul, are not intended. Neither Christ nor Paul were against women; they highly favored them. (See the Conversation with the woman at the well, and Paul’s commendation of Euodia and Syntyche as “fellow workers”.)
Paul’s grammar says that women should submit themselves as an action of their own free will, not that men should force them to submit.
(NIV) Colossians 3:18 Wives, submit yourselves to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord. [The NIV correctly catches Paul’s passive command to wives.]
Here are other verses which use the Greek word “ὑποτάσσω” (hupotάssoe).
1 Corinthians 16:15 Now I urge you, brothers–you know that the household of Stephanas were the first converts in Achaia, and that they have devoted themselves to the service of the saints– 16 be subject to such as these, and to every fellow worker and laborer.
1 Corinthians 15:27 For “God has put all things in subjection under his feet.” But when it says, “all things are put in subjection,” it is plain that he is excepted who put all things in subjection under him. 28 When all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will also be subjected to him who put all things in subjection under him, that God may be all in all.
There is a quote by Eric S. Gray that is making its rounds on the internet, “Whatever you give a woman, she will make greater. If you give her sperm, she’ll give you a baby. If you give her a house, she’ll give you a home. If you give her groceries, she’ll give you a meal. If you give her a smile, she’ll give you her heart. She multiplies and enlarges what is given to her. So, if you give her any crap, be ready to receive a ton of shit!”
In much the same vein Francis Frangipane in his book, This Day We Fight, speaks of God creating man to be the one who brings order and structure to the world. God himself is a God of order and structure, man having been created in his image. Frangipane continues by describing the woman as the life bearer, the one who makes new life. God himself makes life; in him there is life (John 1:4). Both man and woman were created in the image of God (Genesis 1:27), yet with different functions, or roles. They are a team, the one complimenting the other and the first providing for, loving, nurturing, and caring for the other as though she were his own flesh (Genesis 2:23).
Just as a team of horses or sled dogs has a single leader, or a sports team has but one captain, a nation has but one queen or king or only one president, a car only one steering wheel, an airplane one pilot and a copilot, so the team of man and woman has one leader, the one who interfaces with the world to provide order and structure for the family unit, which leads to nurture and safety for the woman, who brings life to the home and bears and raises the children. The human body has two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, two hands, two feet, and only one mouth. In an analogy to marriage, the husband is the mouth and the wife his breath.
Paul wasn’t writing legalistic, dictatorial law; he wasn’t saying, “One size fits all.” Paul was describing God’s blueprint, the way God designed the OS for humanity. God designed humans after his own nature. God is a triune God, three-in-one. The Father is head; the Son is the full expression of the Father and the bearer of life for the world. He carries out his Father’s will. Human marriage is God’s blueprint for the church and Christ, Christ the head in relation to the church and the church his bride. The church carries out her Savior’s will.
Applying the Above to This Verse
So how does being subordinate to her husband in the context of his leadership within the family unit benefit a wife? As shown above, the woman by creation, that is, the biology of the way things are, is the life-bearer and physical nurturer of the baby in the early months/years of life. The husband brings the external order and structure to the home–its sustenance (income) and protection. This frees up the woman from those concerns and gives her the security and restfulness necessary for her to provide for the family–her children, her spouse, and herself–in an atmosphere of peace and joy. It’s division of labor, just as in the human body.
Immediate Biblical Context
The immediate context of Colossians 3:18-4:1, in which Paul addresses the order that is to exist in the Colossian households regarding 1) the husband/wife relationship, 2) the children/parent relationship, and 3) the slave/master relationship, is–
L-O-V-E, Peace, and Joyful Thanksgiving.
Colossians 3:14 And above all these put on love, which binds everything together in perfect harmony.
Colossians 3:15 And let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts, to which indeed you were called in one body. And be thankful.
Colossians 3:16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly, teaching and admonishing one another in all wisdom, singing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, with thankfulness in your hearts to God.
Colossians 3:17 And whatever you do, in word or deed, do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him.
And, it’s a two-way street:
Colossians 3:19 Husbands, love your wives, and do not be harsh with them. (I.e., you must love your wives in such a way that you are willing to die for them– )
Colossians 3:21 Fathers, do not provoke your children, lest they become discouraged.
Colossians 4:1 Masters, treat your slaves justly and fairly, knowing that you also have a Master in heaven.
It is interesting to note that in this entire passage, Paul’s heart seems to be burdened most heavily with the plight of the slaves in his society. Whereas he devotes one sentence each to wives and husbands and one sentence each to children and parents, he devotes four sentences (verses) to his encouragement of slaves, and one sentence to their masters. Clearly, Paul has no chip on his shoulder against any of these six social groups, and his emphasis is NOT on wives. After his brief comments on household order, he switches immediately to prayer and Christian behavior toward outsiders.
Everyone is aware of how imperfectly the church has accomplished Christ’s commandment to spread the good news of his kingdom salvation to the whole world. The relation of wives and husbands is no different–it’s something that the church has botched over the years. Nevertheless, it is the Christian nations in which the movement for social equality for women has gained the most ground. I know of no other world religion that favors women as highly as biblical Christianity. And, the Bible teaches this without demeaning men.
Click for Text Here: Colossians 2:8-3:4
Gospel Precedents and Biblical Background of Spiritual Elements in Colossians 2
I. One of the great markers of the New Testament Gospels is the translation of concrete and historical Old Testament realities into spiritual and historical realities:
A. Jesus becomes the sacrificial lamb.
1. OT: Abraham begins to sacrifice Isaac (Genesis 22:1-14)
2. OT: Passover blood of the sacrificial lamb on the lintel (Exodus 12:7)
NT: Jesus sacrificed during Passover (Luke 22:7-8)
B. Jesus becomes the temple.
1. OT: (2 Chronicles 7:11-12)
NT: (John 2:19-22)
C. Concrete worship becomes spiritual.
1. OT: God commanded a certain location where he was to be worshiped (Deuteronomy 12:2-7)
NT: Jesus changed a specific, physical (concrete) location of worship into a spiritual locus of worship with no physical correspondence (John 4: 20-24)
2. OT: God gave the Israelites manna to keep them alive in the wilderness (Exodus 16)
OT: (Hosea 11:1)
E. The Old Covenant becomes the New Covenant
1. OT: The many OT covenants had physical (concrete) markers
a. the Noahic Covenant, marked by a rainbow, in which God promised not to physically destroy all living flesh by water (Genesis 9:12-17)
b. covenant with Abraham marked by the sacrifice of a physical ram (Genesis 22:9-18)
c. covenant with Israel through Moses (Exodus 24:3-8) marked by sacrificial blood (“This is the blood of the covenant which the LORD has made with you according to all these words.” Exodus 24:8) and the Ten Commandments (Exodus 24:8, 12; 25:16; 34:28)
2. NT: Jesus gives a New Covenant marked by the concrete (physical) sacrifice of his own body on a cross and the symbolic remembrance of that sacrificed blood in communion (“This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.” Luke 22:20
II. The New Testament epistles continue to replace concrete (physical) realities with spiritual realities sometimes marked by concrete symbols:
A. Continuation of Jesus’ blood as a symbolic marker of the New Covenant (1 Corinthians 11:25)
B. Continuation of the spiritual temple motif (Hebrews 10:19-20)
Paul’s Movement from Concrete (Physical) to Spiritual in Colossians
I. In matters of food, drink, festivals, new moon, a sabbath
Colossians 2:16 Therefore let no one pass judgment on you in questions of food and drink, or with regard to a festival or a new moon or a Sabbath. 17 These are a shadow of the things to come, but the substance belongs to Christ.
A. Paul’s list includes all concrete substances (food and drink) or practices (celebrating a festival, a new moon, or a Sabbath).
B. He calls these a “shadow,” but Christ is the “substance,” or the reality that casts the shadow. Not being physically present on Earth at this time, Christ is Spirit, present by means of the Holy Spirit, who lives in believers and among them.
C. Paul calls these concrete religious practices “elemental spirits” or “elementary principles” as in the NAU. (Gr: στοιχεῖον) (Colossians 2:20)
E. These practices concern concrete (physical) items, such as food and drink, which perish as they are used–i.e., they have no eternal value–and they are not useful in helping one to achieve the spiritual practices God desires (Colossians 3:23). The spiritual practices which God desires Paul begins to present in 3:5.
II. Paul moves circumcision from concrete to spiritual
Colossians 2:11 In him also you were circumcised with a circumcision made without hands, by putting off the body of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ,
III. Baptism, itself a concrete action, signifies a spiritual correspondence to and spiritual identification with Christ’s death and resurrection
Colossians 2:12 having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the powerful working of God, who raised him from the dead.
IV. In a spiritual way, the record of debts owed under the Old (First) Covenant was nailed to the cross with Christ and thereby cancelled, forgiven (2:13)
Colossians 2:14 by canceling the record of debt that stood against us with its legal demands. This he set aside, nailing it to the cross.
V. Paul’s point is that the Colossians, as believers in Christ, have moved from the old, concrete form of worshipping God to the new, spiritual form of worship.
Colossians 2:20a If with Christ you died to the elemental spirits of the world,
They are therefore free of the old ways, having died with Christ to them, and having been raised with him into newness of life under the New Covenant of Spirit
and no longer need to follow these old, concrete (physical, fleshly) ways of worship and thinking and living
Colossians 2:20b why, as if you were still alive in the world, do you submit to regulations–
A. His rationale
Colossians 3:1a Since, then, you have been raised with Christ
Colossians 3:3 For you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God.
B. His conclusion
Colossians 3:1b set your hearts on things above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God.
C. How should the Colossians’ thinking change?
Colossians 3:2 Set your minds on things that are above, not on things that are on earth.
D. What will the end result be?
Colossians 3:4 When Christ who is your life appears, then you also will appear with him in glory.
VII. Paul begins to answer the question, How then shall we live?
NIV Colossians 3:5a Put to death, therefore, whatever belongs to your earthly nature (your concrete, fleshly body)
[not in text: and begin to live to the spiritual in the following ways, which he begins to state in 3:5b]
Tracing Out a Single Strand in Paul’s Letter
I. The Colossians’ Position in Christ
- The Colossians have faith and love (1:4).
- They heard the gospel and fully understood and recognized (ἐπιγινώσκω) the grace of God in truth (1:6).
- They learned this true gospel from Epaphras, a faithful minister of Christ (1:7).
- They are no longer estranged (1:21) but are now reconciled and will be presented by God holy, blameless, and irreproachable before him (1:22),
- IF they continue in the faith, stable and steadfast, not shifting from the hope of the gospel they heard (1:23) (and again in 2:6).
- They currently have good order and firmness of faith in Christ (2:5).
- How? (2:7)
- rooted in Christ
- built up in Christ
- established in the faith (as you were taught in the gospel by Epaphras)
- overflowing with thanksgiving
B. Don’t do this:
- Don’t let others deceive and draw you astray into their cul-de-sac of false belief (2:8),
- Because you don’t need them:
- Christ is everything (2:9)
- and you have been:
- You are debt free (2:14)
- Your creditors have been defeated and publicly shamed by God through Christ (2:15)
C. Don’t let this happen:
- That anyone should pass judgment on you in regard to food, drink, festivals, new moons, or Sabbaths (2:16).
D. But do this:
- Seek the things that are above, where Christ is seated at the right hand of God (3:1).
- Set your minds on things that are above, not on things that are on earth (3:2).
III. Paul Continues Explaining in Detail How the Colossians Should Live (3:5-4:6)
Colossians 2:6 Therefore, as you received Christ Jesus the Lord, so walk in him
Colossians Contrasts the Old and New in Christ
Easy Scripture Lookup at https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search
Old (Before Christ)
New (Since Christ)
1:13 authority of darkness
1:13 kingdom of the Son–Love
1:21 estranged, hostile in mind,
doing evil deeds
1:22 reconciled, holy, blameless, irreproachable
1:23 living by faith
1:26 mystery hidden for ages and generations
1:26 the mystery now made open, manifest
1:27 the mystery is Christ in you, the hope of glory
2:8 philosophy, empty deceit, human tradition, elemental spirits of the world
2:9 fulness of deity in a human body
2:10 fulness [of life (RSV)], completion (nothing missing)
2:11 [not circumcised] [living in the body of the flesh]
2:11 circumcised [in heart]; body of flesh put off
2:12 [dead] buried in baptism
2:12 raised from the dead
2:13 dead in trespasses and uncircumcision
2:13 alive with Christ, forgiven
2:14 a bond existed against us with legal demands
2:14 released from debt
2:15 [we lived defeated by] principalities and powers
2:15 principalities now disarmed; believers triumph over them
2:16-17 living in the shadows, where food, drink, festivals, new moon, and Sabbath observances judged essential
2:17 living in substance, which belongs to Christ
2:20 alive to the elemental spirits of the world and submission to regulations based on human commands and teachings
2:20 dead to those with Christ
3:1 not raised, subject to death
3:1 raised with Christ and seated at the right hand of God
3:2 minds set on things on earth
3:2 ability to set mind on things above
3:3 alive to self alone
3:3 dead to self and one’s life hidden with Christ in God
3:4 “with Christ” includes his future glory
3:5-9 walking and living in behaviors that require God’s wrath: sexual immorality, impurity, passion, evil desire, covetousness, anger, wrath, malice, slander, obscene talk, lying
3:9, 12-23 have put off the old nature and put on the new; being renewed in knowledge after the image of God, practicing: compassion, kindness, humility, meekness, patience, forgiveness, love, peace, thanksgiving, and many more
3:11 divisions among classes of people
3:11 Christ all and in all—therefore, no classes and distinctions among people
3:25 living under the threat of punishment
3:24 living with knowledge of the future reward of inheritance
4:1-6 more new behaviors
Old vs New Scriptures
1. Given by Christ
shrunken cloth vs unshrunk: Mark 2:21
old wine/new wine: Mark 2:22
old wine/new wine: Matthew 9:17
taste of old wine/new wine: Luke 5:39
2. Given by Paul
law vs Spirit: Romans 7:6
leaven vs unleavened: 1 Corinthians 5:7
old vs new creation: 2 Corinthians 5:17
3. Given by the Writer to the Hebrews
old vs new covenants: Hebrews 8:6
For Further Reflection: Think of the many Gospel stories you know. Can you find elements of changed lives in each one?
Why read and carefully study this letter?
Staying Focused on the Word of God Gives Us a Right Heart
- the Bible tells us why we have trials
- the Bible commands and encourages not to give up
- the Bible animates us to not lose hope and confidence
- the Bible aligns us to something greater than ourselves and our life situations–namely, God
- God’s Word gives us strength to stand
- God’s Word gives us freedom to walk
- will trials rule me? Or, as I cling to his Word and draw near to him, will his Spirit of life direct my steps?
- God’s truth makes me whole
This is a letter approved and sent by Christ through his servant Paul to be interpreted in a church setting by the Holy Spirit. Conditions for attentively reading this letter still exist today.
Although Paul at some point may have traveled through Colosse as the route of a journey further west (Hendriksen, 8-9), it is all but certain that he did not “meet and greet” many of the soon-to-become Christians there (Colossians 2:1). Epaphras did the evangelizing of the folk in his hometown (Colossians 1:7; 4:12), having apparently been discipled by Paul.
In view of the fact that Paul had not founded the church at Colosse, nor even met its people, but had heard about them, most likely from Epaphras, he lays a carefully diplomatic and lengthy foundational introduction before he launches into the meat of his practical exhortation to them. Both the foundation and exhortation center upon consideration of Christ’s centrality and all-sufficiency for each and every Christian and for the church as a body.
I. As a Letter
- From (1:1)
- To (1:2a)
- Greeting (1:2b)
- Prayer (1:3-12a)
- Body (1:3-4:6)
- Closing and Farewell (4:7-18)
II. As a Carefully Aimed Arrow
A. Introductory Remarks: Laying a Good Foundation to Support the Exhortation (1:3-2:5)
- Prayer for the Colossians (1:3-12a)
- The Father’s Role in the Colossians’ Salvation (1:12b-13)
- The Son’s Role in the Universe and in Salvation (1:14-23a)
- Paul’s Role (1:23b-2:5)
- for the gospel (1:23b)
- for the church (1:24-29)
- for the growth of the Colossians and Laodiceans (2:1-5)
All of the above includes only positive statements in the sense that Paul gives no hint of any lack among the Colossians nor of exhortation of any kind, except for mentioning in 1:23 the general requirement that Christians must continue in the faith in order to receive the blessings of being in Christ.
Application: Do I use Paul’s techniques in my own correspondence, including email and text messages?
B. Paul’s Exhortation (2:6-4:6)
- Paul threads his theology of Christ into his exhortation
- Paul’s theology of Christ is the foundation for his exhortation
C. Closing and Farewell (4:7-18)
Scriptural Highlight: Christ Is All in All
NIV Colossians 1:13 For he has rescued us from the dominion of darkness and brought us into the kingdom of the Son he loves, 14 in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins. 15 The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. 16 For in him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through him and for him. 17 He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. 18 And he is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything he might have the supremacy. 19 For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him, 20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross.