One Small Voice

Home » A. Bible Studies » Gems from John

Category Archives: Gems from John

Resurrection, Conclusion, and Falling Action

Week 19 John 20-21

(Link to Outline of John) (Link to the first lesson of Gems in John)

John’s Theme: John 20:31 … these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.

RESURRECTION

In presenting the resurrection facts, John’s intent is: 1) to continue to give credible eye witness reports and 2) to continue to show us the relationships that Jesus had with various of his followers. The quiet tone he had established as he explored Jesus’ character in chapters 13-19 continues. As many commentators say, John the writer undoubtedly was aware of the other three gospel accounts. I like to think, however, that his selective choice of detail was primarily for his own literary and spiritual purposes (John 20:31), rather than to avoid “repetition” of the others.

Here are the witnesses and the way Jesus interacted with them.

I. Mary Magdalene

A. In John’s gospel, only mentioned once prior to the resurrection: present at the crucifixion with Mary the mother of Jesus, John, and other women

B. Luke alone (Luke 8:1-3) provides further information about Mary (apart from the crucifixion and resurrection).

1. She had been one of a group of women who had traveled with Jesus and his band, ministering to him (serving, providing food, taking care of needs) at their own expense.

2. Jesus had cast out from her seven demons (vs 2).

C. Mary and the Resurrection (John 20:1-2; 11-18)

1. The events

a. Mary came early to the tomb, while it was still dark. Finding the stone taken away, she ran to Simon Peter and to John, reporting that unknown persons had removed the Lord’s body from the tomb and laid it in an unknown place.

My Groove_IMGP0214

Photo by Christina Wilson

My Disc_BIMGP0068

Photo by Christina Wilson

 Cork Disc copy

See the article at this link: Disc or Cork?

b. Later, after Peter and John had examined the empty tomb for themselves, Mary returned alone. Grieving deeply, Jesus appeared to her, first of all in John’s gospel. Jesus gave her exact instructions about going to his brothers and delivering a message from him to them. (John 20:17)

c. She went and followed Jesus’ instructions.

2. What can we surmise from Mary’s encounter with Jesus? (John tells only the bare facts, giving no interpretation. Anything we add regarding motive and the like is supposition from the details given.)

a. Jesus does not despise women–he rather honors them. (Jesus appears to Mary first. Additionally, John the writer, reflecting Jesus’ attitudes, presents her testimony as credible and important.) Ultimately, God himself determined that Mary’s account, as it appears, was to be included in his holy word.

b. Is it possible that Jesus appeared to Mary first because she was in a great deal of emotional pain?

c. Jesus honored Mary by giving her an important task and a very important theological message to give to the others.

d. Jesus ministered to Mary’s emotional distress in the same way–he kept her busy in service to himself.

e. Why did the angels announcing Jesus’ resurrection also appear to Peter and John, who had arrived at the tomb earlier?

3. Possible interpretation of vs 17, “Jesus said to her, ‘Do not cling to me,  for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brothers and say to them, “I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.”‘”

a. According to William Hendriksen, writing about vs. 17, Mary has been singled out to “announce to them what great event in the history of redemption is about to take place” (Hendriksen,  Vol. 2, 456).

b. Hendriksen (See above, 455) also interprets Jesus’ command to Mary not to cling to him, as being not about not touching him, but as a statement that there lies something better for her in the future. The outward, physical (concrete) relationship that she and everyone else had enjoyed with him was soon to be replaced by something far better–the opening of the doorway back into intimate spiritual fellowship with God, especially as (implied) his ascension would prepare the way for the sending of the Holy Spirit to live within them (as opposed to the external, physical touch.) In my own paraphrase of Hendriksen’s meaning, Jesus was saying, Mary, I know you want to hold onto me tightly, as you did in the past and because you don’t wish to lose me again, but there is something far, far better planned. You must move forward and deliver the message I have for you, in anticipation of this better way for all of you to relate to me.

II. John and Peter

The hasty trip to the tomb in response to Mary’s message (John 20:2-10)

peter_john-run-2

A. They found the tomb empty, as Mary had said.

B. They saw no angels, unlike Mary’s later visit (see above).

C. John ran faster but waited for his elder.

D. Peter did not hesitate but went right in.

E. John realized that the empty tomb, its complete orderliness, and the positions of the grave clothes indicated that Jesus had arisen–therefore, he was the Christ, the Lord, the Son of God who conquered death (Selah!!) and everything he had said about himself was all true. John’s faith grew by “leaps and bounds” upon this realization.

 

III. The disciples together except for Thomas (John 20:19-25)

A. The disciples, still highly fearful of the religious leadership, the religerati, had locked themselves together on the evening of Resurrection Day, when suddenly, Jesus appears in their midst, not having knocked or visibly come from anywhere. This is a mystery. He gives them his peace: 1) now there is legal peace between them and God the Father, and 2) the subjective peace that follows full realization of the legal peace, and 3) peace in knowing that he, the Christ, their Lord, friend, and brother, is alive, risen.

B. Jesus shows them his hands and his side, demonstrating: 1) that he was not a spirit only, but that his body was very real and concrete, 2) that his was the same body, his body, as before the crucifixion, and 3) that he was certifiably who he claimed to be. It is interesting that although he had been resurrected, the marks of the nails and the hole from the piercing of his side were still present. Perhaps this had specifically to do with the certification of number 3.

C. After the disciples rejoiced, Jesus repeated his gift of peace to them, as though perhaps they were still in shock (See “Further Thoughts” below).

D. Jesus directly commissions them to continue the very work, minus the atonement, that the Father had commissioned him to do. This work involves manifesting the nature and character of the Father to the world for the purpose of bringing in the full number of preordained believers. Love, holiness, mercy, and justice are among the Father’s attributes that Jesus commissions his disciples to go out into the world to manifest.

E. Verses 22 and 23 are too complex for a complete discussion within this outline. In brief, I see in these verses the delegation of Christian authority to practice the gift of spiritual discernment. All Christians and all people sin. Among those who sin are some who grieve and repent over their sin, not wishing to harm others. These show a humility toward the leaders of the church and are for the church, both local and universal. Others sin because they have bad intentions toward other believers and certain people generally and toward the church itself. These have no desire and no intention of repenting. They do not mean well, but they are rebellious and wicked in intent. The assignment Jesus the risen Lord gives these original disciples, as the new appointed leaders of his church, is to sort out who is who in the interest of protecting and sparing the sheep of the flock as shepherds. I believe Jesus is giving them direction on how to nurture, grow, and protect the flock, rather than placing them in an authoritarian position of judgment. God in Christ is the Judge, and he needs no help in that. To show that the spiritual discernment is a gift, Jesus blew on them and said, “Receive the Holy Spirit.”

ESV  John 20:22 And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit. 23 If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them; if you withhold forgiveness from any, it is withheld.”

The following is a set of mixed verses that indicate the twin principles of 1) forgiveness of sins for the purpose of nurture and growth, and 2) keeping a watchful and corrective eye upon those whose intent is to divide and disrupt the church and the true word of God: Galatians 6:1; II Timothy 4:2; Titus 3:10-11; Romans 16:17-18; 2 John 9-10; and I Corinthians 5:12-13.

F. Scripture at this point devotes two full verses to Thomas, called the Twin, known by us as Doubting Thomas. He had not been present at this first manifestation of Jesus to the gathered group, and he rejected their combined testimonies to him! He laid out his own terms, and stated that unless this “supposed” (implied) Jesus met his, Thomas’s, criteria, he would not believe.

————————————————————————

Further Thoughts:

The disciples had been through an extraordinarily topsy-turvy week emotionally and spiritually.

1. The triumphal entry had encouraged their dreams of a great kingdom on earth in which they would play chief roles, because they were Jesus’ close followers.

2. Jesus’ announcements and predictions in the upper room not only smashed these hopes, but caused sorrow, grief, and confusion.

3. The events of the crucifixion intensified and seemingly brought to reality what before had been doubts. Hendriksen makes a strong case that none of the disciples in any way, shape, or form had been expecting the resurrection.

4. The empty tomb and the reports of “Jesus sightings” had turned their world upside-down again, as faith, logic, reason, and emotions tried to quickly grapple with and accommodate the new information.

5. Jesus’ first appearance to the gathering of disciples startled the disciples tremendously.

In view of the above, can we forgive the disciples, including Thomas, for perhaps what may seem like a slow response on their part? Would any of us have done better? What is my own miracle-expectation level?

————————————————————————

IV. The disciples together including Thomas (John 20:26-29)

A. Hendriksen writes, “The condescending manner in which Jesus dealt with Thomas certainly indicates that he is still the same Jesus. His love has not lessened…he deals very gently with him.” (Hendriksen, Vol. 2, 465) [How many of us are glad that God wanted to include Thomas’s story in Scripture?]

B. Jesus certifies that it is indeed himself by showing his powerful omniscience, as he had done many times while with them before his crucifixion. The following chart is also from Hendriksen in the same citation as Point A above.

jesus-omniscience

 

CONCLUSION

John 20:30 Now Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book; 31 but these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.

A. John as a writer and eyewitness to the events he describes points out in verse 30 that he has been selective in the events and dialogue he chose to report.

B. At the same time, he adds credibility to the other three gospels, each of whose writers chose to include more of Jesus’ miracles, details of his travels, and character sketches and events involving secondary characters.

C. John in verse 31 directly states his criteria for selecting the material he did. Further, he gives his goal for having written the entire book.

D. Thomas, as one who doubted perhaps more than the others, is one who came to a solid belief that the Jesus he knew is the Christ, the Son of God. This belief gave life to Thomas in Christ’s name.

E. Thomas response exemplifies John’s stated goal (Hendriksen, Vol. 2, 466)

John 20:27 Then he said to Thomas, “Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your hand, and place it in my side. Do not disbelieve, but believe.”

resurrection-sign

 

FALLING ACTION

I. A group of disciples (John 21:1-14)

A. In these detailed verses, John describes the third occurrence in his gospel of Jesus’ revealing himself to his disciples while they are gathered in a group.

B. We see Peter as the leader, and John as the one with the greater spiritual insight.

C. We see the whole group experiencing real time in a life example the difference between being attached to Christ the vine and heading out on their own (See John 15:1-8, the vine and branches discourse).

D. We see Peter’s compliance to one who at first appears to be unknown. Compare this with the prior time when Jesus had asked him to cast his net on the other side of the boat, Luke 5:4-8.

II. Jesus and Peter (John 21:15-19)

A. Even though through the prior section it becomes apparent that Peter is the leader of the small band, at least informally, in the dialogue in this section, Jesus performs what is usually termed “Peter’s reinstatement.”

1. Jesus formally gives Peter his task as shepherd-servant within Christ’s kingdom. Jesus’ purpose is not to make of Peter a great man, but to impress upon him his further plans for him to help, nurture, and grow the sheep of his kingdom.

2. With that end in mind, Jesus brings Peter back to the place of acceptance and inclusion among the group of chosen, hand-picked disciples. Not that Jesus himself had ever excluded Peter from that group, but Peter’s own experience of dismal failure in the area of loyalty to Christ had caused him to feel guilty and unworthy of such a role.

3. Jesus offers Peter three opportunities to declare his love for Jesus, one for each time that Peter had publicly denied him.

4. Jesus continues to insist throughout that because Peter loves him (Jesus himself, who knows all things, has no doubts about Peter’s genuine love for him) he must do for Jesus what Jesus himself will no longer be able to do in physical presence: love, care for, feed, and protect his sheep. Jesus demonstrates his acceptance of, love for, and confidence in Peter by assigning him a large and most important task central to Jesus’ own heart.

B. Jesus also prophesies to Peter that he will yet be given another opportunity to die for Christ–“you will stretch out your hands” is a euphemistic way of referring to crucifixion in the literature and speech of those days.

III. Jesus and Peter and John (John 21:20-23)

A. The prior statement had closed with Jesus’ commandment to Peter, “Follow me.” As Peter is doing so physically, he turns and sees John also following. (It is interesting that John did so apparently on his own–he did not need a personal command nor invitation to do what appears to be natural for him.)

B. Peter asks Jesus, “Lord, what about this man?” There are at least two ways of reading Peter’s motives–one negative and one positive. Given Peter’s recent humbling in having denied his beloved Lord three times, and given that throughout this gospel Peter and John appear to be friends, I receive the positive explanation.

1. Negatively, Peter could have been asking about John from a motive of selfish and jealous pride, having so recently been not only reinstated by Christ but singled out by him to perform an important task. A paraphrase of his thinking might be, Lord, you commanded me by name to follow you, and here is this man whom you did not command also following. Is he welcome?

2. Positively, Peter’s attention was focused on the more recent prophecy that he would die by crucifixion and he is concerned that his young friend might die the same way. So he seeks a foretelling from Jesus concerning John.

3. That the positive interpretation seems most likely is further indicated by Jesus’ reply to Peter, “If it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you? You follow me!” This seems a mild rebuke to Peter to keep his own eyes focused on the task that Jesus gave to him, rather than being distracted by whatever may happen around him.

C. In verse 23, John corrects a rumor that had widely spread among the Christian family that he would not die. In so doing, he demonstrates his skill of careful listening to the exact words of Christ.

D. This incident should serve to increase the reader’s confidence in John’s narrative.

E. The section in its entirety also teaches how easy it is, even among disciples, to arrive at wrong interpretations of Jesus’ words. This should be a lesson against becoming didactic on theological positions, even though using scriptural texts as “proofs.” John has just demonstrated how easy it is for God’s words to be misinterpreted.

IV. John’s final words (John 21:24-25)

A. Once again, John speaks to his trustworthiness as the writer of this gospel.

B. He also reminds the reader of the selectivity he has chosen to use in presenting the gospel, while at the same time testifying to the greatness of Jesus Christ incarnate.

 

Link: A Subjective Look at Thomas

 

 

 

 

Jesus Loved Them to the End: Arrest and Crucifixion

Week 18 John 18-19

(Link to Outline of John) (Link to the first lesson of Gems in John)

John’s Theme: John 20:31 … these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.

Events of Chapters 18-19

I. Arrest in the Garden (18:1-12)

A. Judas’ betrayal (18:2-3)

B. Peter’s use of the sword (18:10-11)

C. Jesus’ defense of his disciples (18:4-9)

II. Appearance before the High Priests (18:13-27)

A. Annas and Peter’s first denial of knowing Jesus (18:13-23)

B. Caiaphus and Peter’s second and third denials of knowing Jesus (18:24-27)

III. Appearance before the Secular Roman Governor Pilate and Pilate’s Intense Struggle to Free Jesus (18:28-19:16)

A. Outside his headquarters to hear the charges against Jesus in the presence of the Jewish leaders (18:29-32)

B. Inside his headquarters to question Jesus alone (18:33-38a)

C. Outside again to bargain with the religerati, the religious leaders, away from Jesus (18:38b-40)

1. Pilate declares Jesus innocent and seeks to release him in (18:38b-39)

2. The Jewish religious leaders cry out for Barabbas the robber instead (18:40)

D. Pilate punishes Jesus

1. flogging by the soldiers (19:1)

2. mocking and scorn by the soldiers (19:2-3)

E. More negotiations (19:4-12)

1. Pilate announces to religious leaders that he is bringing Jesus out to them, having found no basis for a charge against him (vs 4)

2. Jesus appears wearing the crown of thorns and purple robe, having just been flogged by the Roman soldiers (vs 5)

ESV  John 19:5 So Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, “Behold the man!”

behold-the-man

3. The religerati cry “Crucify!” while Pilate insists he finds no basis for a charge against him (vs 6)

4. The religerati name the Jewish crime of claiming to be the Son of God (vs 7)

5. Back inside his palace with Jesus present with him, Pilate is intimidated by the regal bearing and authoritative statements of Christ (vss 8-11)

6. Back outside, Pilate attempts again to set Jesus free, but the religious leaders will have none of it. They accuse Pilate of being no friend of Caesar. (vs 12)

F. Pilate pronounces judgment against Jesus (vss 13-16)

1. Afraid for himself, Pilate gives in, sits on the judge’s seat (vs 13)

2. He still gives opportunity to the leaders to change their minds (vss 14-15)

3. The religerati’s argument boils down to Caesar being king; to free Christ would be to offend Caesar (vs 15)

4. Finally, Pilate weakens utterly and hands Jesus over to the Jewish religious leaders to be crucified (vs 16a)

III. The Crucifixion (vss 16b-27)

1. The soldiers take Jesus away from Pilate’s palace carrying his own cross to The Place of a Skull, also called Golgotha (vs 16a)

2. They crucified him with two others (vs 17)

3. Pilate writes “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews” on a sign fastened above Jesus’ head, overriding the protests of the religerati (vss 19-22)

4. The soldiers divide Jesus’ garments among themselves, fulfilling an Old Testament scripture (vss 23-24)

5. Three women named Mary and John, “the disciple whom Jesus loved,” stood near the cross, while Jesus assigned the care of his mother Mary to the disciple (vss 25-27)

IV. Jesus Dies (19:28-37)

1. Jesus says, “I thirst.” (vs 28)

net-notes-vs28

New English Translation Notes. BibleWorks 9 Software for Biblical Exegesis & Research. Norfolk, VA: BibleWorks, 2011.

2. Having received a bit of sour wine, Jesus says, “It is finished,” bows his head, and dies (vss 29-30)

3. The soldiers come by and break the legs of the two men crucified with Christ, but Jesus’ legs they do not break. Instead, one of the soldiers pierces his side with his sword, and immediately blood and water flows out. Two Old Testament prophecies are thus fulfilled: Exodus 12:46 and Psalm 34:20 (vss 31-37)

V. The Burial (19:38-42)

Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus (See Nicodemus in Week 4, John 3), both prominent Jewish men of standing, take Jesus’ body, wrap it with spices and linen, and place it in a freshly hewn, never used tomb near the site of the crucifixion.

Approaches to the Text for Helping the Reader Understand

I. Interpretive Principles

A. Author’s Intent

1. It is a general principle of reading, taught as early as second grade, that readers need to be aware of 1) the genre of any piece of written material, and 2) the author’s intent, or purpose in writing.

a. The genre of John is a gospel circular, as are all the Gospels.

b. What distinguishes John’s gospel from the other three are his specific purposes, just as each of the other gospel writers in turn had their own specific purposes.

c. John himself states 1) his overall purpose for his entire book, and 2) his immediate purpose for chapters 13-19.

1) John gives his overall purpose near the end of his writing.

John 20:31 … these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.

2) John gives his immediate purpose at the beginning of the Upper Room record of events and Jesus’ last discourse and prayer.

John 13:1 Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that his hour had come to depart out of this world to the Father, having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end.

B. Context

1. John’s distant and near contexts control his choice of details to accomplish his purposes.

a. John’s ultimate context is everything in his account so far, which all shows how Jesus is God’s Son, sent to love the world.

b. John’s near context begins in the Upper Room as quoted just above.

I have found that reading Chapters 13-19 straight through as a single unit, a continuous narrative, highlights the demonstration of Jesus’ tender and gentle love for his own and his command of all that is happening around him.

2. John’s concern is to display Jesus, to tell-him-forth (John 1:18), as it were. Jesus is his main character and the central figure throughout. John never deviates from keeping Jesus in the spotlight at all times.

a. For example, John relates Judas’ betrayal very simply in two brief verses. He mentions none of the Synoptic Gospels’ account of the betrayal-by-kiss method that Judas chose. John relates enough to demonstrate that Jesus’ foreknowledge and announcement of the betrayal event to the disciples in the Upper Room had been fulfilled, yet no more, for this is Jesus’ story, not Judas’s. Likewise, Jesus’ love is displayed in that Judas was at the table among the twelve when Jesus stooped to wash the disciples’ feet. Jesus demonstrates God’s selfless love by washing the feet of the man whom he knows will betray him.

b. Likewise, John’s relating of Peter’s drawing the sword and cutting off the high priest’s servant’s ear is simple and concise. The details demonstrate Peter’s sincerity of heart when he stated in John 13:37, “Lord…I will lay down my life for you,” yet this is Jesus’ story, not Peter’s. Therefore, John chooses to omit the long narrative that Luke includes about the two swords (Luke 22:35-38 and 48-52). Even though John adds credence to his first-hand account by mentioning the servant’s name (John, as an acquaintance of the high priest, {John 18:16}, is the only gospel write who includes the servant’s name), he doesn’t mention the healing. He gives only enough detail to 1) demonstrate Peter’s heart of loyalty, 2) establish credibility for his authority as writer in order to help the reader believe in Christ, and 3) to show the fulfillment of scripture, which helps the reader to conclude that God has foreknowledge and command of the entire situation.

c. A similar motif of John’s use of brief details as concerns the other actors in the narrative occurs in Peter’s three denials. Matthew (Matthew 26:69-75), Mark (Mark 14:54; 15:66-72), and Luke (Luke 22:54-62) include many details about the event, such as Peter’s own subjective response to his actions, while John records only enough details to show that the event occurred (John 18:17-18, 25-27). John’s account serves to demonstrate the truthfulness of Jesus’ prior foreknowledge in his Upper Room prophecy (John 13:38) without removing the spotlight for very long from Jesus himself. Jesus’ foreknowledge of Peter’s denial also adds to the convincing nature of Jesus’ love for his own.

II. Conclusion

Therefore, in light of the above, as the reader considers John’s account of Jesus’ arrest, trial, crucifixion, death, and burial, it is helpful to remember that John’s ultimate aim is to help the reader believe in Jesus as the Son of God. He includes material and only includes material that demonstrates Jesus’ and God’s own prior knowledge and control of the situation within the realm of love.

III. Application of the Prior Suggestions

As you read, try to notice and reply to the following questions:

1. Which verses demonstrate fulfillment of Jesus’ prior statements in the Upper Room concerning events that would happen?

2. Which show fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies?

3. Which verses about Jesus’ arrest show his control and command of the entire situation?

4. How does Jesus behave during his questioning by the high priest? How does his behavior indicate his control?

5. How do Jesus’ several  dialogues with Pilate indicate that God was the author of the Crucifixion and that Jesus through the Father is in complete control, even the outcome of Pilate’s choices?

6. How does the narrative as a whole and in specific parts demonstrate God’s love for people? As you answer, consider the world, Jesus’ own band, and Jesus’ own family?

sidebar-additions_omissions

I’d be interested to learn if my suggested approach to reading John by keeping his own purposes and contexts forefront in your mind as you read are at all helpful for you. I welcome any comments you may wish to leave below in the comment box. You can sign in through your Word Press account, through Facebook, or through Google (such as through your g-mail address. All this information is private and kept private–I do not even see it. I will only see your comments.

We have one more week to go, Lord willing. I have really enjoyed taking this journey with you, as I have been greatly blessed by studying John up close. This is not something I would have done on my own. Therefore, I wish to thank Norma, Michele, and Linda in particular for the accountability our weekly meetings have afforded me. Your diligence, great listening skills, and hungry appetites have put me to shame. Thank you all so very, very much for giving me this awesome opportunity to go through this Scripture with you. Thanks also to the Word Press readers who read and like these studies. Such feedback offers encouragement to press on and prayer support in doing so.

 

 

 

 

Jesus Loved Them to the End: High Priestly Prayer

…Jesus’ prayer is relational. He’s requesting that his Father bring his flock into the relationship that Father and Son share, not as partners in their divinity, but as partners in the fellowship of the relationship.

(more…)

Jesus Loved Them to the End: Words of Prediction

Week 16 John 16:1-33

(Link to Outline of John) (Link to the first lesson of Gems in John)

John’s Theme: John 20:31 … these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.

Overview of Chapters 14-17

Chapters 14-17 form a unit, possibly all taking place while in the upper room still at supper or shortly thereafter. Or, chapters 15-17 may have been given while in route to the Garden of Gethsemane. The text does not give enough information to know conclusively.

Chapters 14-16 form a single, long discourse by Jesus to his disciples, while chapter 17 is a prayer to God by Jesus both for himself and for his disciples. A general description of each chapter is given below.

ch 14 Comfort with an emphasis upon the Trinity

ch 15 Admonition

ch 16 Prediction

ch 17 High Priestly Prayer

Chapter 15 (Link to Previous Lesson)

Section 1: Abide in Me John 15:1-11

Section 2: Love One Another John 15:12-17

Section 3: Testify of Me John 15:18-27

Chapter 16 (see Hendriksen, Vol. 2, 319-346)

A Word of Prediction

Section 1: Even as believers are being persecuted (John 16:1-4, see Week 15), the Holy Spirit will come and abide.

I. The Holy Spirit and the World (John 16:5-11)

Setting: ESV  John 16:1 “I have said all these things to you to keep you from falling away. 2 They will put you out of the synagogues. Indeed, the hour is coming when whoever kills you will think he is offering service to God. 3 And they will do these things because they have not known the Father, nor me. 4 But I have said these things to you, that when their hour comes you may remember that I told them to you. “I did not say these things to you from the beginning, because I was with you.

A. Jesus is leaving (vss 5-6)

1. He points out the disciples’ selfish response in their failure to ask questions.

2. Their grief has numbed them, so that they only see their own pain and not the larger picture.

3. Nevertheless, Jesus proceeds with kindness to explain that his leaving them physically is for their benefit.

B. The Counselor will not come to them unless he goes away.

1. Not stated–Jesus is going the way of the cross in order to provide ultimate atonement for all their sins.

2. Atonement paves the way for God’s dwelling within them to be re-established.

3. God’s declaration of acceptance for Jesus’ sacrificial death is two-fold:

a. the resurrection

b. the sending of the Holy Spirit

C. When the Counselor (the Holy Spirit) comes he will (vss 8-11):

1. Convict the world in regard to sin–the world’s sin. The world rejected Jesus as Son of God and killed him. The presence of the Spirit in the world shows that Jesus, though rejected and cast out by the world, is alive and therefore the genuine Son of God. There is no excuse for not believing (receiving) him.

2. Convict the world in regard to righteousness–Christ’s righteousness: It is Christ’s righteousness to which the Spirit testifies. The presence of the Holy Spirit in the world shows that Christ indeed was resurrected, and therefore declared righteous in the eyes of God the Father. (see also Pink, pages 861-868)

 3. Convict the world in regard to judgment–Satan’s judgment: Satan has been judged and declared guilty for condemning God’s Son. Everyone will witness this finally and fully when at the Last Day he will be cast into the eternal lake of fire (Revelation 20:10).

D. Peter’s sermon on Pentecost contained all three of the elements listed in verses 8-11 above (Acts 2:22-36). Many of the people–about three thousand men, women, and children–repented and believed that day.

 II. The Holy Spirit and Believers–the Church (John 16:12-15)

A. Throughout Chapters 14-16 Jesus has been emphasizing his oneness with the Father and the Holy Spirit. He is leaving; the eternal God is always present. Jesus is leaving, but He will return in the third person of the Trinity–the Holy Spirit. This should be a great comfort to the disciples in their moment of felt need at the thought of the imminent departure of their leader, their Master and Lord.

B. Details of the Holy Spirit’s future interaction with the disciples.

1. The disciples cannot bear to hear the “many things” right then, in part because neither the cross, the resurrection, nor the ascension had yet happened.

2. The Holy Spirit follows the same pattern as Christ. Neither Jesus nor the Spirit speaks on their own authority, but only what they hear in the presence of God the Father. They are essentially one in substance, one essence.

3. The Holy Spirit will prophetically reveal that which is still to come (see, for example, Thessalonians and Revelation).

4. Everything the Son has is given by the Father, and all that the Father has is given to the Son. This is what the Spirit will reveal to the disciples. He will thereby glorify Christ, since Christ is at the center of God’s plan of salvation for the entire human race. Christ will also be glorified to the world through the preaching of the disciples and their followers.

Section 2: Sorrow turns to joy with the resurrection of Christ and the Coming of the Holy Spirit (John 16:16-24)

I. Jesus Helps the Disciples Voice Their Concerns Aloud (John 16:16-19)

This dialogue fits in well with the informality in tone of Chapter 13. It serves to remind the readers of the location (quite likely still the upper room either during or right after the Last Supper) and occasion (Jesus’ imminent departure from the disciples) of the entire discourse. John points out to the reader the tenderness of the Lord as he helps the disciples to deal with and receive what he is telling them.

II. Their Sorrow Will Become Joy (John 16:20-24)

A. The Jewish religious leaders undoubtedly rejoiced when Jesus was pronounced dead. As soon as they found the tomb empty that first Sunday morning, their joy turned once more to anguish. The world has been anguishing over the Good News ever since.

B. The disciples would grieve and mourn over the events of the Garden and what followed. And they on that first Sunday morning experienced awe and joy like none other. The coming of the Holy Spirit caused further joy beginning on the day of Pentecost. Christians have been rejoicing ever since.

C. This is very much like the pain and joy of a mother during labor and afterwards. The disciples’ joy will be permanent–out of reach of every enemy.

D. Answered prayer will be a cause for joy after the Holy Spirit comes. The disciples faith will be mature–grown up and complete. In that day, they will know all about God’s complete plan for salvation, as revealed by the Spirit in plain words, no longer in parables and veiled sayings. They will understand more fully the motives and character of Christ and ask accordingly. Because they will be praying as Christ himself would pray, the Father will answer those prayers, causing greater joy.

E. Combining the first four verses of this chapter (John 16:1-4) with these verses, the reader sees that the disciples’ (and all believers’) union with Christ will yield on the one hand persecution on account of his name and on the other hand great blessings of answered prayer and fullness of joy in his name.

III. Final Encouraging Remarks (John 16:25-33)last-supper-discourse

A. The Father loves you.

1. Jesus very directly tells the disciples that he will be leaving them permanently–he is going back to the Father from whom he came.

a. When the Holy Spirit comes, he will also speak plainly to them.

b. Because the disciples have believed that Jesus was sent by God and because they loved him, albeit imperfectly, they are included in the circle of God’s fellowshipping love. God loved them before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4-5), and from now on, they will be fully experiencing that love through the Spirit.

2. The disciples now know that Jesus is the Christ, God’s Son, and that he is able to discern their thoughts without the hint of their asking him questions.

3. Jesus again demonstrates his knowledge of all things by predicting that they will scatter, each to his own home, and leave him alone. The disciples believe and love him, but it is as though the light within them is on a short timer that keeps clicking on and off. When the Spirit comes, they will know fully, and the light switch will be permanently turned on (metaphor courtesy of my pastor). Yet Jesus, up until the moment of the cross, will not be alone, for his Father is with him.

B. You will have peace.

John 16:33a “I have said these things to you, that in me you may have peace…”

1. The peace will be a legal peace of atonement and justification (“your whole body is clean”). Such a peace always leads to subjective peace with daily confession and repentance of sins (a good foot washing) and a constant abiding in Christ the vine through the presence of the Holy Spirit in a believer’s heart

C. Be of good cheer!

John 16:33b “…In the world you will have tribulation. But take heart; I have overcome the world.”

What seemed at first to be gloom and doom has turned into a rallying cry of victory–Christ will soon be wearing the victor’s crown. So certain is he of the final outcome of his achievement that he states it in the present perfect tense, “I have (once and for all and with permanent ongoing results) overcome the world.”

The implication is that because Christ has already conquered the world, the disciples, who most assuredly will follow wherever he leads–they too will overcome the world.

Lamentations 3:22 The steadfast love of the LORD never ceases; his mercies never come to an end; 23 they are new every morning; great is your faithfulness.

 

 

 

Jesus Loved Them to the End: Words of Admonition

Week 15 John 15:1-27

(Link to Outline of John) (Link to the first lesson of Gems in John)

John’s Theme: John 20:31 … these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.

Overview of Chapters 14-17

Chapters 14-17 form a unit, possibly all taking place while in the upper room still at supper or shortly thereafter. Or, chapters 15-17 may have been given while in route to the Garden of Gethsemane. The text does not give enough information to know conclusively.

Chapters 14-16 form a single, long discourse by Jesus to his disciples, while chapter 17 is a prayer to God by Jesus both for himself and for his disciples. A general description of each chapter is given below.

ch 14 Comfort with an emphasis upon the Trinity

ch 15 Admonition

ch 16 Prediction

ch 17 High Priestly Prayer

Chapter 15 (see Hendriksen, Vol. 2, 293-317)

Section 1: Abide in Me John 15:1-11

Section 2: Love One Another John 15:12-17

Section 3: Testify of Me John 15:18-27

 I. Vine and Branches–Abide in Me John 15:1-11

ESV  John 15:5 I am the vine; you are the branches. Whoever abides in me and I in him, he it is that bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing.

A. The purpose of Jesus’ incarnation is to provide atonement and new life for humankind.

1. through the cross and resurrection

2. by faith

3. through the preaching of the Word

4. by means of sending the Holy Spirit

B. Jesus’ own exemplar is God the Father.

1. Throughout the book of John, Jesus has always said that he speaks and does only as he hears and sees the Father speaking and doing.

2. Jesus abides in his Father 100% thoroughly.

C. When he is gone, the disciples must say and do as Christ by means of abiding in Christ through his Word and the Holy Spirit.

1. There are no exceptions. Anyone who does not abide in Christ misses the mark, and will be left out, cast away, just like a fruitless branch of a grapevine.

2. Even though Jesus will soon be leaving the disciples, the Father is not going anywhere, and the principle of abiding in Christ remains.

D. The means of abiding in Christ is through the Word and the Holy Spirit (a theme to be developed in Chapter 16).

John 15:3 Already you are clean because of the word that I have spoken to you.

John 15:7 If you abide in me, and my words abide in you, ask whatever you wish, and it will be done for you.

E. What is fruit in this context?

1. Branches bear fruit because they abide in the vine–they are livingly attached and dependent upon the vine.

2. A fruitful branch is one that carries the living life juice and properties of the vine within it. Any branch so related to the vine will bear fruit–that’s what vines do; if not, it will be pruned, so that the remainder does bear fruit.

3. Bearing fruit in this context is to be livingly connected to Christ, to bear his image, to represent him to the world.

Luke 6:40 A disciple is not above his teacher, but everyone when he is fully trained will be like his teacher.

a. Aspect one: to be like Christ.

Galatians 5:22 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 23 gentleness, self-control; against such things there is no law.

b. Aspect two: to do the works of Christ–i.e., to witness about him and about the love of God to the world.

Matthew 28:19 Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20 teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age.”

F. Three “fruits” of bearing fruit–

1. answered prayer

John 15:7 If you abide in me, and my words abide in you, ask whatever you wish, and it will be done for you.

2. love

John 15:9 As the Father has loved me, so have I loved you. Abide in my love. 10 If you keep my commandments, you will abide in my love, just as I have kept my Father’s commandments and abide in his love.

3. joy

John 15:11 These things I have spoken to you, that my joy may be in you, and that your joy may be full.

II. Love One Another John 15:12-17last-supper-discourse

John 15:12 “This is my commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you.

A. God is love.

John 3:16 “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.

1 John 4:16 So we have come to know and to believe the love that God has for us. God is love, and whoever abides in love abides in God, and God abides in him.

B. Jesus demonstrates his love for God and for people by laying down his life.

John 15:13 Greater love has no one than this, that someone lay down his life for his friends.

C. Jesus is leaving. The disciples must do for each other what prior to this time only Christ had been doing for them.

John 15:17 These things I command you, so that you will love one another.

D. Fruit, obedience, and love are intertwined

John 15:16 You did not choose me, but I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit and that your fruit should abide, so that whatever you ask the Father in my name, he may give it to you. 17 These things I command you, so that you will love one another.

E. How did Jesus demonstrate all three? How can I demonstrate all three in the relationships and situations I encounter again and again each day in my own living environment?

III. The World Will Hate You–Go Testify About Me John 15:18-27 and 16:1-4 

John 15:18 “If the world hates you, know that it has hated me before it hated you.

John 15:27 And you also will bear witness, because you have been with me from the beginning.

A. Jesus is establishing a kingdom populated by those whom he has pulled from the fire by means of their faith in him.

1. Jesus will be physically leaving.

2. The disciples must carry on.

3. The Holy Spirit will also be engaged in this work.

B. Just as the world hated Christ and crucified him, so they will hate and even kill the disciples, who bear his image and preach in his name.

C. Implied: Don’t be like Judas, who gave up and left because he was a fruitless branch who did not abide in me.

John 16:1 “I have said all these things to you to keep you from falling away. 2 They will put you out of the synagogues. Indeed, the hour is coming when whoever kills you will think he is offering service to God. 3 And they will do these things because they have not known the Father, nor me. 4 But I have said these things to you, that when their hour comes you may remember that I told them to you. “I did not say these things to you from the beginning, because I was with you.

Looking Ahead: If all this seems too hard for you, it is. But don’t worry; you will have the Holy Spirit to be your friend and Helper.

 

 

Jesus Loved Them to the End: Words of Comfort

Week 14 John 14:1-31 

(Link to Outline of John) (Link to the first lesson of Gems in John)

John’s Theme: John 20:31 … these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.

Overview of Chapters 14-17

Chapters 14-17 form a unit, possibly all taking place while in the upper room still at supper or shortly thereafter. Or, chapters 15-17 may have been given while in route to the Garden of Gethsemane. The text does not give enough information to know conclusively.

Chapters 14-16 form a single, long discourse by Jesus to his disciples, while chapter 17 is a prayer to God by Jesus both for himself and for his disciples. A general description of each chapter is given below.

  • ch 14 Comfort with an emphasis upon the Trinity
  • ch 15 Admonition
  • ch 16 Prediction
  • ch 17 High Priestly Prayer

    last-supper-discourse

    Jesus saying farewell to his eleven remaining disciples, from the Maesta by Duccio, 1308–1311 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farewell_Discourse

Chapter 14 Ten Approaches to Comfort (see Hendriksen, Vol. 2, 260-292)

Section 1: John 14:1 – 11

 I. Trust in God and trust in me. I will still take care of you, even though I am leaving. Jesus strongly implies that he is God.

ESV  John 14:1 “Let not your hearts be troubled. Believe in God; believe also in me.

“Troubled” is the same word used of Jesus himself at Lazarus’ death in chapter 11 and Jesus’ announcement that he would be betrayed by one of the twelve in chapter 12. Undoubtedly, Jesus himself, as a man, is still “troubled” in his own heart (witness the prayers and drops of bloody sweat in the Garden), yet here he is tenderly, patiently, and compassionately comforting his disciples.

From Fame to Shame in a single day:

In just one day, the disciples’ world has crashed down upon them utterly.

  • The triumphal entry ends disappointingly for the disciples, as Jesus turns away from temporary fame and hides himself from the religious leaders (John 12:36b).
  • Jesus announces that one of their own will betray him (implying that he will be handed over to death) (John 13:21).
  • When Peter offered to lay down his life for his master, Jesus predicted that Peter would betray him (John 13:38).

Jesus fortifies their faith in chapter 14, so that when the “bad” events (although decreed by God) continue to happen and severe doubts assail the disciples, their faith will not completely collapse.

Antidote to Fear

The antidote to fear, as always in the entire Scripture, is trust in God. Believe, says Jesus. Take hold of your heart and combat your doubts and struggles of faith by believing in God. “Believe also in me.” Be placing belief in God side by side with belief in himself, Jesus is equating himself with God. The religious leaders were right all along–Jesus does claim to be God. This is not blasphemy, however, because as events of the resurrection unfold, ascension, and Pentecost unfold, the disciples do come to see and heartily believe that Jesus is indeed God.

II. I’m leaving to prepare a place for you.

John 14:2 In my Father’s house are many rooms. If it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you?

Jesus goes to heaven to prepare a place for not only each and every disciple, but also for every believer. There is plenty of room for all where Jesus is going. Jesus prepares the place, while the Holy Spirit, whom Jesus will send after his ascension, prepares the disciples and all believers for the place.

III. I’m coming again–I’ll take you with me.

John 14:3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, that where I am you may be also.

The “coming again” in this verse most likely refers to the Lord’s Second Coming to take all believers to be with him for eternity in his Father’s house (see context of vs 2). “To myself” is the same phrase John uses in 1:1, there translated as “with God.” It means face to face. Believers will once again be very close to Jesus (cf. Revelation 14:1; 19:14; 20:4). Believers today can encourage their hearts in knowing that there will always be a “place” for us right next to Christ, who is in and with the Father.

 IV. I’m leaving but I am still the way, and the truth, and the life.

John 14:4 And you know the way to where I am going.” 

Christ is going to be with the Father. For Christ, he is going the way of the cross. The disciples, on the other hand, know already that the way to the Father for them is Christ himself. They must go through Christ to get to the Father. Christ is inviting them to come to the Father by belief in himself, whom they know (see John 8:19; 10:1, 7,9, 37, 38; 12:26, 44, 45, 49, 50. See also Hebrews 11:13-16).

Thomas then becomes the spokesperson for the group. His question in verse 5 resembles the Pharisees’ question in John 7:35. Now as then, Thomas was thinking that Jesus would be going somewhere physically on earth. Although Thomas’ question reveals his doubtful, despairing heart, it also reveals his love for Jesus, in that he wants to go with him wherever that might be.

5 Thomas said to him, “Lord, we do not know where you are going. How can we know the way?”

Jesus’ response in verse 6 is classic and famous:

6 Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.

Thomas, as mentioned above, was asking Jesus how they would be able to follow in his way, whereas Jesus answers with the way that the disciples must take.

Verse 6 comprises the last of the seven “I Am” statements in John (Seven I Am Statements in John). Scripture shows that Christ teaches the way (Mark 12:14; Luke 20:21), he guides us in the way (Luke 1:79), he has dedicated for us the new and living way (Hebrews 10:20), and he is the way (John 14:6).

Because Jesus is the way, believers learn that we are not saved by a principle, nor a force, but by a person, which is a specific self-contained consciousness.

The way, the truth and the life–

  • the way brings the believer to God
  • the truth makes people free
  • the life produces fellowship with God and with others who also have Christ’s life in them

7 If you had known me, you would have known my Father also. From now on you do know him and have seen him.”

Jesus’ further reply to the whole group in verse 7 implies that the disciples do not yet truly know Jesus as well as they could and should. Knowing Jesus is the same as knowing the Father. Had the disciples been listening, paying close attention, and praying the last three years. Jesus states in paraphrase, Now I am telling you clearly–you do see me and therefore you do know the Father.

Bless Philip! He says,

8 Philip said to him, “Lord, show us the Father, and it is enough for us.”

Philip, haven’t you heard anything at all that Jesus has been saying? Or, are you expecting a visible theophany of the manifestation of God’s glory, like Moses in the cleft of the rock in the desert when God passed by?

9 Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you so long, and you still do not know me, Philip? Whoever has seen me has seen the Father. How can you say, ‘Show us the Father’?

Again, what had Jesus been saying, teaching, and doing for the last three years if not manifesting the Father? (See John 1:18; 3:33-36; 5:17, 18 19-32; 6:29, 38, 57; 7:29; 8:16, 19, 28, 29, 42, 54, 55; 10:15, 30 33, 37, 38; 12:45; 13:31.)

“What the disciples lacked, however, was not genuine faith as such but genuine faith in full measure.” (Hendriksen, Vol. 2, 270)

10 Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? The words that I say to you I do not speak on my own authority, but the Father who dwells in me does his works.

Jesus and the Father are one essence, sharing one self-consciousness. How is this comfort?

  • Every Jewish person of that day believed in one God, who was creator of everything. They knew God to be the all-powerful one. By making himself to be one with the Father (which the disciples still did not see yet), Jesus is comforting them that he is greater than all opposition, greater than all the adversaries.
  • Further, even if he leaves, which he will, the Father is still the same, still with them, still the almighty and powerful one.
  • Finally, by Christ’s being in the Father and the Father in Christ, Jesus is saying that he is eternal. Jesus will be alive and well even if he does go away for awhile.

11 Believe me that I am in the Father and the Father is in me, or else believe on account of the works themselves.

This section of encouragement ends very much the way it began:

John 14:1 “Let not your hearts be troubled. Believe in God; believe also in me.

John 14:11 Believe me that I am in the Father and the Father is in me,…

This time, however, there is only one “believe.” Believing in the Father and believing in Christ are one and the same, because they are one. Jesus is in the Father and the Father in him.

And, to make things super-easy for the disciples if that seems too difficult, Jesus adds, “or else believe on account of the works themselves.” No one could do all the works that Jesus has done before them unless he were God.

“…Believe on account of the works themselves,” is implied evidence for the continuation of miracles today. If Jesus permitted and encouraged the disciples to believe on account of all the miracles that he had done while he was with them, then even more so, why wouldn’t he allow non-believers today to access belief through miracles?

1 Timothy 2:3 …God our Savior, 4 who desires all people to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth.

Section 2: John 14:12-24

V. Because Jesus goes to live with the Father, the disciples will do great and greater works. They should pray and ask in Jesus’ name and he will do the works for them.

John 14:12 “Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever believes in me will also do the works that I do; and greater works than these will he do, because I am going to the Father. 13 Whatever you ask in my name, this I will do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. 14 If you ask me anything in my name, I will do it.

Paraphrase of vs. 12–If you believe in me [Jesus], then I will continue to supply miracles from heaven. I have the power to do so, even after I am no longer with you. (Jesus and the Father are one.

It is clear from vs. 14 that even today, it will be Christ who performs miracles. Believers are to ask (pray) for “anything” in Jesus’ name (according to Jesus’ character and desires), and he will do it.

The greater works will occur because Jesus is going to the Father. These “greater” works are most likely spiritual in nature, because the spiritual is always more difficult than the material, and the material follows the spiritual.

Matthew 6:10 Your kingdom come, your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven.

VI. I and the Father will send you another Helper, the Spirit of truth. Knowing this should comfort you now, and when he comes, you will be greatly encouraged and comforted at that time.

John 14:15 “If you love me, you will keep my commandments. 16 And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Helper, to be with you forever, 17 even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him. You know him, for he dwells with you and will be in you.

15 “If you love me, you will keep my commandments.

Jesus will not send the Holy Spirit to make his home among and with those who do not love him. And love is evidenced by obedience to Christ’s commandments (John 14:23-24 see below).

When Jesus went to heaven, he prepared the way for sending the Holy Spirit, who works on earth from within the church to perform miracles of belief in peoples’ hearts.

Great conversions of the Gentiles began to occur immediately after the Holy Spirit came on Pentecost day (see the “greater works than these” above in John 14:12).

16 And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Helper, to be with you forever,

Both the Father and the Son–they are one–are involved in sending the Helper, the Holy Spirit. The Father is in the Son, and the Son is in the Father. Therefore, the Holy Spirit represents both of them. He is another Person of the Trinity; he is not different in essence.

This Helper will be with the disciples forever, i.e., with the church composed of the disciples and all believers who come after them. The Helper will never die, nor leave them. This is great encouragement indeed! And, Christ will continue to be their Helper in heaven, while the Holy Spirit will be their Helper on earth. Christ will plead the people’s case with God (Romans 8:34), while the Holy Spirit will continually plead God’s case with people (John 16:8).

17 even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him. You know him, for he dwells with you and will be in you.

As the Spirit of truth, the Holy Spirit will guide those destined to belief into and within the realm of salvation in Christ. This is because Jesus is “the way, and the truth, and the life.”

The world cannot receive the Holy Spirit, because the world believes the deception of the wicked one. Nor does the world love Christ; nor is it obedient to him. Neither seeing nor knowing the Holy Spirit, the world cannot receive him.

The disciples on the other hand know the Holy Spirit, because he currently lives with them in the Person of Jesus Christ. After Jesus’ departure, he will send the Spirit as Spirit, and the Spirit will live in them and among them.

Alternatively, one can interpret this verse as meaning that when the Holy Spirit comes–at that time, the disciples will know him, because he will dwell with them, by their side, and within them. He will make the church his temple and live there forever.

VII. In that other Helper, I will spiritually return to you, to all who love and obey me, but not to the world.

John 14:18 “I will not leave you as orphans; I will come to you. 19 Yet a little while and the world will see me no more, but you will see me. Because I live, you also will live. 20 In that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you. 21 Whoever has my commandments and keeps them, he it is who loves me. And he who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and manifest myself to him.” 23 Jesus answered him, “If anyone loves me, he will keep my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our home with him. 24 Whoever does not love me does not keep my words. And the word that you hear is not mine but the Father’s who sent me.

In this connected paragraph Jesus repeats some of the elements he has previously stated.

1. Jesus is physically leaving them, but not without provision. They will not be orphans (vs. 18). Context determines that Jesus’ coming again in this verse is in the form of the Holy Spirit, not the Second Coming at the end of the age, as in vs. 3.

Other layers of meaning could imply the Second Coming and also the New Heaven and the New Earth in Revelation.

2.  The world will see Jesus no more, but the disciples will see him (vs. 19).

a. The disciples will see Jesus during the 40 days between the resurrection and the ascension. The world did not see him at this time.

b. After Pentecost, the disciples will “see”

–in each other

–in the miracles

–in the conversion of multitudes of Gentiles

–and with the eyes of their living spirits, which will have been resurrected with Christ and sealed with the Holy Spirit

c. Without spiritual belief and love for Christ, the world will see nothing of him after his death on the cross.

3. “In that day”–(vs. 20) the day of Pentecost and beyond–the disciples’ spiritual eyes will continuously be opened to greater and greater understanding by the Holy Spirit. They will see clearly that Christ is in the Father and the Father in Christ.

4. The requirement for receiving the manifestation of Christ will be love. Those who love Christ are those who keep his word. The Father will love those who love Christ and keep his word. Christ will also love these and manifest himself to them, through the Holy Spirit, as implied in prior verses.

5. verse 22 Judas (not Iscariot) said to him, “Lord, how is it that you will manifest yourself to us, and not to the world?”

It is as though Judas had stepped out of the room and just returned. He asks Jesus to explain what he has just explained. Nevertheless, Jesus does not grow impatient, but explains in nearly identical words (vss. 23-24) the same concepts all over again.

This should give encouragement to us, who also need to hear the same truths repeated over and over again before they sink in and become real. This is especially true in times of emotional stress, such as that the disciples were just them experiencing.

22 Judas (not Iscariot) said to him, “Lord, how is it that you will manifest yourself to us, and not to the world?” 23 Jesus answered him, “If anyone loves me, he will keep my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our home with him. 24 Whoever does not love me does not keep my words. And the word that you hear is not mine but the Father’s who sent me.

Notice that the Jewish leaders, who represent the entire Jewish nation, have neither loved nor obeyed Jesus. Therefore, by vss. 23 and 24, they will not receive the Father’s love, nor will the Father and Christ come to make their home with them. From this point forward, the entire Jewish nation, as a political entity on earth, is part of the “world.” There will always be a remnant of believers drawn out from the whole. The disciples and other Jewish believers at that time are part of the remnant.

Nations, such as Rome, are also part of the world.

____________________________________________________________________

By announcing to the disciples the coming of the Holy Spirit and by saying to them that the world will no longer see him, Jesus is continuing to announce the Grand Shift from Concrete to Spiritual. From now on, Jesus’ dealings, the Father’s dealings, and the Holy Spirit’s dealings with people will be on a spiritual level only. Jesus has been contrasting the concrete and spiritual throughout his ministry, beginning with his conversations with Nicodemus and the woman at the well. Here, as he is about to leave the world and send the Holy Spirit in his place, he is teaching that the shift from concrete to spiritual will be complete. (This does not mean that concrete miracles will no longer occur.)

____________________________________________________________________

Jesus closes this portion by reminding the disciples, as he has many times throughout the entirety of his ministry, that the words he speaks to them are not his words. That is, he is not the originator of what he is saying; the Father is. Jesus speaks the word of the Father.

Section 3: John 14:25-31

VIII. The Holy Spirit will teach and remind them of all that Jesus has been saying.

John 14:25 “These things I have spoken to you while I am still with you.

26 But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you.

Jesus seems to be saying that it will be to the advantage of both the disciples and the Kingdom which they will grow through their witness and mission activities that he go away. While with them, he has told them certain things. He has much more to say which they cannot at that moment bear to receive.

John 16:12 “I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now.”

holy-spirit-replayBut when Jesus leaves, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in Jesus’ name, will teach them everything they need to know, including those things that Jesus had already told them. The Holy Spirit is like a living Replay button who also adds his own, new material.

IX. Jesus leaves behind the gift of his peace.

John 14:27 Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you. Not as the world gives do I give to you. Let not your hearts be troubled, neither let them be afraid.

The peace Jesus leaves behind and gives is both legal and subjective.

1. Legally, by his death and resurrection from the cross, humankind’s sins have been forgiven. The atonement provides cleansing from sin and application of Christ’s righteousness. This is called justification. Only once in all eternity does humankind as a whole and persons as individuals ever need justification. The cross accomplished all.

2. Subjectively, Jesus gives and makes available to all believers an absence of spiritual unrest, the assurance of salvation, and the loving presence of God in all circumstances. This subjective feeling occurs in individuals and in the church as a collective body of individual believers, as both of these exercise faith in the Father and in Christ and draw from the abiding presence of the Holy Spirit.

The peace of Christ is permanent, durable, and sufficient, because Jesus gives not as the world gives. Paul calls it “the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding.” (Philippians 4:7).

Because of this gift of peace, the gift of the Holy Spirit, and Christ’s ongoing presence with the Father, Jesus once again admonishes his disciples, “Let not your hearts be troubled, neither let them be afraid.

He had said them at the beginning of this discourse in vs. 1, “”Let not your hearts be troubled. Believe in God; believe also in me.”

X. Jesus repeats that he is going to the Father and that their love for him should cause them to rejoice at this.

John 14:28 You heard me say to you, ‘I am going away, and I will come to you.’ If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I am going to the Father, for the Father is greater than I.

It stands to reason that if there is anything at all in Jesus’ departure by death about which to rejoice, then the situation cannot be all that terribly bad. They should be comforted.

The Father in his heavenly divinity is greater than Jesus the man in his earthly tent of sorrowful flesh. Father God is greater than Son of Man in his role as mediator.

John 14:29 And now I have told you before it takes place, so that when it does take place you may believe. 30 I will no longer talk much with you, for the ruler of this world is coming. He has no claim on me, 31 but I do as the Father has commanded me, so that the world may know that I love the Father. Rise, let us go from here.

Verses 29 through 31 are a conclusion to what Jesus has been saying.

1. The purpose of his foretelling the disciples of his death and separation from them is to strengthen their belief and trust when it actually does occur in a short while.

2. Although Jesus knows that Satan is coming to attack him (even now Judas may be talking to the high priests and they may be on their way with soldiers to arrest him), he also has the bold confidence to know for a certainty that Satan has no claim on him.

3. It is the Father’s fore plan and purpose that Christ should suffer just as he has all along and is about to even more.

4. By Jesus’ behavior, the world will know that he loves the Father.

5. It’s time to get ready to leave.

 

 

Jesus Loved Them to the End: A New Commandment and a Tragic Dinner

Week 13 John 13:1-38  Washing the Disciples’ Feet; Foretelling Judas’ Betrayal; Prophesying Peter’s Denial

(Link to Outline of John) (Link to the first lesson of Gems in John)

John’s Theme: John 20:31 … these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.

Parallel Passages for Foot Washing: Mat 23:6-12; 10:24; 10:40; Luke 22:3; 12:37; 22:24-28; 6:40; 10:16; Joh 13:1-20

Update:

John 12:36 While you have the light, believe in the light, that you may become sons of light.” When Jesus had said these things, he departed and hid himself from them.

From this point forward, Jesus’ public ministry has ended. His entire focus is on what lies before him at the cross, and to this end, he prepares his disciples for Judas’ betrayal, Peter’s denial, and the need for them to love each other as he would if he were to remain physically with them. The section that begins in Chapter 13 continues through to his arrest in Chapter 18.

Introduction: The theme of Chapter 13 is love. The verse that ties the chapter together is verse 1:

John 13:1 Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that his hour had come to depart out of this world to the Father, having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end.

I. Jesus Washes His Disciples’ Feet  John 13:2-17

A. Setting (cf parallel passages listed above)

Unlike most of the popular paintings indicate, the disciples reclined on slightly elevated mats or mattresses ushaped_table around a U-shaped table according to the manner of the day, lying most likely on their left sides with their right arms free to reach for food and eat. (Hendriksen, Vol. 2, 229; Weekend Nation Online, “Jesus and the Apostles did not sit on chairs at a table,” March 26, 2016, http://nation.lk/online/2016/03/26/jesus-and-the-apostles-did-not-sit-on-chairs-at-a-table.html.)

Everything was ready for the meal, including the pitcher of water, basin, and towel for washing the guests’ feet. Except…there was no servant to perform this menial task. (Hendriksen, Vol. 2, 228)

John 13:2-5 During supper, when the devil had already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, to betray him, Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he had come from God and was going back to God, rose from supper. He laid aside his outer garments, and taking a towel, tied it around his waist. Then he poured water into a basin and began to wash the disciples’ feet and to wipe them with the towel that was wrapped around him.

The synoptic gospels tell how the disciples had been arguing among themselves about which of them was the “greatest.” (Luke 22:24) None of them performed the favor of washing the others’ feet. So Jesus did it.

B. What Did Jesus’ Washing His Disciples’ Feet Reveal?

washing-feet

Original source unknown.

1. His genuine LOVE for his disciples–as their Creator and Savior, he was also Caregiver and Physician. He was their Rabbi, Teacher and Master. They were his children (cf 13:33). Walking about all day on dusty, garbage-strewn streets which the donkeys and other animals also used, people’s feet got dirty and tired. Having their feet washed before eating was practical as well as physically refreshing and comforting for them. Jesus wanted to perform this act of love for them. He had a tender, compassionate, and affectionate heart for them. He loved them!

verse 1having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end.

2. His HUMILITY–Jesus’ identity as Son of God, Son of Man, Messiah, Master, Lord, and Teacher reveals that each of them should have been washing his feet, but they were all too proud to pick up the towel, pour the water, and begin.

John 1:27 even he who comes after me, the strap of whose sandal I am not worthy to untie.”–John the Baptist

Philippians 2:7 but made himself nothing, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. 8 And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.

3. An EXAMPLE–soon Jesus will no longer be physically present with his disciples. The love which he customarily gave them, they must now give to each other.

John 13:33 Little children, yet a little while I am with you…34 A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another: just as I have loved you, you also are to love one another.

John 17:26 I made known to them your name, and I will continue to make it known, that the love with which you have loved me may be in them, and I in them.”

 1 John 3:23 And this is his commandment, that we believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ and love one another, just as he has commanded us.

4. A highly SYMBOLIC action

a. Jesus’ mission to humanity was to cleanse us from our sin.

i. Complete justification for believers occurred on the cross and need never be repeated.

ii. Sanctification for continued sin is an ongoing process involving confession (symbolically–recognizing that the feet are dirty and willingly receiving a foot-washing) and spiritual cleansing (through application of God’s Word upon a believer’s heart by the Holy Spirit).

John 13:9 Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, not my feet only but also my hands and my head!” 10 Jesus said to him, “The one who has bathed does not need to wash, except for his feet, but is completely clean. And you are clean, but not every one of you.”

John 17:17 Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth.

Ephesians 5:25-26 …Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, 26 that he might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the word,

iii. Jesus’ mission of cleansing a people for God involved his whole ministry of concrete (physical) actions, which also represented non-physical spiritual realities and truths.

a. John Chapter 3–Nicodemus–spiritual rebirth

b. John Chapter 4–woman at the well–spiritual water

c. John Chapter 6–Jesus the bread of life–spiritual nourishment

d. John Chapter 13–washing the disciples’ feet–spiritual cleansing

e. In order to partake of Christ, to be part of him, the believer must participate in every means of spiritual cleansing God provides in Christ

i. the blood of justification

ii. the daily means of sanctification

John 13:6 He came to Simon Peter, who said to him, “Lord, do you wash my feet?” 7 Jesus answered him, “What I am doing you do not understand now, but afterward you will understand.” 8 Peter said to him, “You shall never wash my feet.” Jesus answered him, “If I do not wash you, you have no share with me.” 9 Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, not my feet only but also my hands and my head!” 10 Jesus said to him, “The one who has bathed does not need to wash, except for his feet, but is completely clean. And you are clean, but not every one of you.”

b. No one can wash Jesus’ feet; he is the only one who can cleanse (Luke 11:37-39).

i. John the Baptist understood correctly that Jesus was the one who should have been baptizing him (Matthew 3:13-15).

ii. Jesus had no need of sanctification, because he had no sin (2 Corinthians 5:21).

iii. Jesus’ mission on earth was to cleanse believers from their sin (2 Corinthians 5:21).

iv. Therefore, Jesus was the one to express this symbolically by washing the disciples’ feet.

C. Application

Jesus is our great high priest (Hebrews 4:15) and intercessor (Romans 8:34). That means he prays for us and handles our sin issues.

Think about when we make trips to the doctor, or when we go to a friend or pastor or counselor with a sensitive difficulty. When I am in these situations, I want someone who is kind and gentle, not proud, non-condemning, not judgmental, to help me–in short, someone who is him-or-herself humble, someone who I think will be sympathetic with me. I also want someone who is wise and will know how to fix me.

Jesus is this person. As Son of God, he is the wisest person anywhere, strong, a truth teller, and capable. As Son of Man, Jesus by name, the foot-washer, he is more humble and tender than I am, by far. He’s the one person we can always turn to who will love us, not shame us, help us, not condemn us. His truth shining in our hearts will expose, cleanse, heal, and renew everything about us that is not right. He’s the one I want washing my feet.

And I should be like him, doing the same for others. “We love, because he first loved us” (1 John 4:19).

II. Jesus Announces His Betrayal

A. Jesus’ Own Emotions

John 13:18 …I know whom I have chosen. But the Scripture will be fulfilled, ‘He who ate my bread has lifted his heel against me.’ 19 I am telling you this now, before it takes place, that when it does take place you may believe that I am he. 20 Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever receives the one I send receives me, and whoever receives me receives the one who sent me.” 21 After saying these things, Jesus was troubled in his spirit, and testified, “Truly, truly, I say to you, one of you will betray me.

Jesus was “troubled in his spirit.” The NET says “Jesus was greatly distressed in spirit.” We encountered this same phrase when Jesus met with those who stood weeping and grieving over the death of Lazarus.

John 11:33 When Jesus saw her weeping, and the Jews who had come with her also weeping, he was deeply moved in his spirit and greatly troubled. 34 And he said, “Where have you laid him?” They said to him, “Lord, come and see.” 35 Jesus wept. 36 So the Jews said, “See how he loved him!”

Jesus’ response on that occasion was to weep. Also, many of the Psalms reference the deep emotions of the psalmist and prophetically record the emotions and prayers of Messiah (Psalm 55:12-14; 55:20-21). Hebrews tells us that Jesus learned submission by the things he suffered (Hebrews 5:8).

As a man, therefore, we know that Jesus had all the emotions common to humanity. It pained and grieved him that one of his own disciples should betray him, even though he knew at the time that he chose Judas that it would be so.

John 6:70 Jesus answered them, “Did I not choose you, the Twelve? And yet one of you is a devil.”

B. The Disciples’ Response–the Proverbial Bombshell Dropped at Dinner

bomb

NIV  John 13:22 His disciples stared at one another, at a loss to know which of them he meant.

is-it-i

 

NAU  Matthew 26:22 Being deeply grieved, they each one began to say to Him, “Surely not I, Lord?”

Then, in response to questioning by Peter and John, Jesus revealed that Judas was the betrayer.

John 13:22 The disciples looked at one another, uncertain of whom he spoke. 23 One of his disciples, whom Jesus loved, was reclining at table close to Jesus, 24 so Simon Peter motioned to him to ask Jesus of whom he was speaking. 25 So that disciple, leaning back against Jesus, said to him, “Lord, who is it?” 26 Jesus answered, “It is he to whom I will give this morsel of bread when I have dipped it.” So when he had dipped the morsel, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot.

C. Judas’ Response

Alone of the twelve, Judas is the only one who displayed no genuine self investigation nor pain, even though he pretended not to know that it was he.

ESV  Matthew 26:25 Judas, who would betray him, answered, “Is it I, Rabbi?” He said to him, “You have said so.”

John, however, chronicles a progression in Judas’ hardness of heart. First, Satan tempted Judas with the thought of betrayal.

John 13:2 During supper, when the devil had already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, to betray him,

Second, Satan entered Judas’ heart.

John 13:26 …So when he had dipped the morsel, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot. 27 Then after he had taken the morsel, Satan entered into him…

This was the point of no return, both for Judas and for Jesus. Because Judas had rejected Jesus as his Teacher and Lord, Satan, who had already been tempting him, entered his heart. By lacking any desire to resist him, Judas had stepped beyond all possibility of repentance.

Satan entering Judas’ heart also signalled the point of no return for Jesus, because Judas was about to begin the chain of events that would move swiftly and inexorably towards the cross.

John 13:27 …”What you are going to do, do quickly.”

John 13:30 So, after receiving the morsel of bread, he immediately went out. And it was night.

The time of day was night, and John also intends us to know that for Judas the light had completely gone out–he was spiritually stumbling in the darkness, forever lost.

C. Jesus’ Care and Preparation of His Disciples

 John always shows the reader how Jesus is in control of every situation and every scene. All that happens to him is by the sovereign plan of God. Nothing takes Jesus by surprise. Jesus uses these facts to comfort and encourage his disciples in this hour when all their hopes are being shattered. Just a short while ago, emotions and expectations most likely were soaring high in response to the crowd’s enthusiasm toward their Master at the triumphal procession. Now they are receiving blow after blow of shocking news.

First, Jesus goes into hiding from the Jews, rather than setting up the long-awaited messianic kingdom. Next, Jesus tells them that he will be betrayed by one of their own.  After that, he will soon be leaving them.

Jesus’ goal is to prepare his beloved disciples for these events, telling them ahead of time, so that when these things happen, their faith will remain. This is an expression of his LOVE.

1. He tells them of the betrayal by one of their own. When that happens, they will know that his foreknowledge indicates God’s control.

John 13:11 For he knew who was to betray him; that was why he said, “You are not all clean.”

John 13:19 I am telling you this now, before it takes place, that when it does take place you may believe that I am he.

 John 13:21 When Jesus had thus spoken, he was troubled in spirit, and testified, “Truly, truly, I say to you, one of you will betray me.”

John 13:25-26 So lying thus, close to the breast of Jesus, he said to him, “Lord, who is it?”  26 Jesus answered, “It is he to whom I shall give this morsel when I have dipped it.” So when he had dipped the morsel, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot.

2. Jesus encourages his disciples by reassuring them even though he will be betrayed, glory will come, and quickly.

John 13:31-32 When he had gone out, Jesus said, “Now is the Son of man glorified, and in him God is glorified;  32 if God is glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself, and glorify him at once.

3. Jesus encourages and strengthens his disciples by telling them that their hour has not come.

John 13: 33 Little children, yet a little while I am with you. You will seek me; and as I said to the Jews so now I say to you, `Where I am going you cannot come.’  

John 13:36 Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, where are you going?” Jesus answered, “Where I am going you cannot follow me now; but you shall follow afterward.”

4. There is still life and mission for the disciples, that is, a purposeful and prosperous future.

John 13:34 A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another; even as I have loved you, that you also love one another.  35 By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another.”

III. Bad News Not Over Yet–Jesus Prophesizes Peter’s Denial

Peter thought he knew his own heart, and while he did know the good part, he did not know his heart completely. The baser part of his heart lay hidden from his sight.

Jesus had just told the disciples that he was leaving and they cannot follow him (verse 36 above).

Peter brings out the good part of his heart.

John 13:33 …`Where I am going you cannot come.’

John 13:36 Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, where are you going?” Jesus answered, “Where I am going you cannot follow me now; but you shall follow afterward.” 

37 Peter said to him, “Lord, why cannot I follow you now? I will lay down my life for you.”

Jesus brings out the base part of Peter’s heart.

38 Jesus answered, “Will you lay down your life for me? Truly, truly, I say to you, the cock will not crow, till you have denied me three times.

IV. Looking Ahead: Jesus Continues to Comfort and Fortify His Disciples

John 14:1 “Let not your hearts be troubled. Believe in God; believe also in me.

The Triumphal Entry: God Directs Events

Week 12 John 12:12-50: The Raising of Lazarus Leads to Public Acclaim

(Link to Outline of John) (Link to the first lesson of Gems in John)

John’s Theme: John 20:31 … these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.

Parallel Passages: Matthew 21:14-16, Mark 11:1-10, Luke 19:28-40

uh-oh

Introduction: We learn from Chapter 12 that God is in control and directs every event surrounding Jesus and his mission.

  • The timing of Lazarus’ death and raising was placed close to the Jewish celebration of Passover, because that is the moment God chose in order to coincide with Old Testament prophecy and motif concerning the sacrificial lamb.triumphal-entry
  • The raising of Lazarus directly contributed to the enthusiasm of the crowds that greeted Jesus as he entered Jerusalem for the Passover Feast.
  • Consequently, the triumphal entry forced the Pharisees’ hand to arrest and kill Jesus, not because they wanted to do so while everyone was watching, but because God had decreed in ages past that Jesus the Christ was the eternal Lamb to be slain, and symbolism required that this happen on Passover. They killed him because of jealousy and fear for their own “exalted” positions.
  • Jesus Christ’s death and resurrection were designed by God, and the crucifixion was completely voluntary on Jesus’ part. God used the Pharisees’ own hardness of heart towards His own end of salvation for all humankind.

sidebar-sacrifice-by-crucifixion

 

 

 

 

I. John 12:12-19 The Triumphal Entry

A. The raising of Lazarus flows right into the triumphal entry

1. The miracle caused such a stir among the people that the religious leaders had decided to arrest and kill him. John 11:45-57

2. Six days before the Passover, Jesus arrived at Bethany, very close to Jerusalem, where the family of Lazarus gave a dinner, (John 12:1-8) and a large crowd of people gathered to catch a glimpse of Jesus and of Lazarus.

3. The next day, Jesus and his disciples joined a great crowd on their way to Jerusalem for the Feast. Part of the crowd accompanied him from Bethany, and part came out from Jerusalem when they heard that he was on his way. The people from Bethany testified and spread the word about the miracle they had witnessed when Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead after four days. John 12:17-19

4. As Jesus entered the city sitting on a donkey’s young colt, the crowd welcomed him with palm branches. These represent rejoicing and triumph. John 12:13-15

5. All four gospels record this event, the three synoptics adding details of their own. Matthew 21:1-9, Mark 11:1-10, Luke 19:28-40

B. The triumphal entry causes the Pharisees to become even more excited in opposition to Jesus than they had been before.

C. The disciples did not see or understand the connection between the events of what we now call “Palm Sunday” and the Old Testament prophetic Scriptures. They only came to understand these events after Jesus’ crucifixion, burial, resurrection, and ascension into glory. John 12:16

ESV  John 12:13 So they took branches of palm trees and went out to meet him, crying out, “Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel!” purposeful-entry

LXE  Psalm 118:22 The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner. 23 This has been done of the Lord; and it is wonderful in our eyes. 24 This is the day which the Lord has made: let us exult and rejoice in it. 25 O Lord, save now: O Lord, send now prosperity. [verse 25 is encompassed in the single word, “Hosanna!”] 26 Blessed is he that comes in the name of the Lord: we have blessed you out of the house of the Lord. 27 God is the Lord, and he has shined upon us: celebrate the feast with thick branches, binding the victims even to the horns of the altar.

ESV  John 12:15 “Fear not, daughter of Zion; behold, your king is coming, sitting on a donkey’s colt!”

ESV  Zechariah 9:9 Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your king is coming to you; righteous and having salvation is he, humble and mounted on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey.

D. By entering Jerusalem this way, Jesus was openly and boldly announcing that he was indeed the long-awaited Messiah, Israel’s King.

II. John 12:20-36 Jesus’ Discourse Prompted by the Greeks’ Request

A. Some Greeks ask Philip if they can meet with Jesus. John 12:20-22

1. These Greeks are God-fearing Gentiles who regularly worship among the Jewish people. (Hendriksen, Vol. 2, 193)

2. Jesus fully explains his mission of salvation for the entire world. Philip and Andrew, whom Philip had consulted, then relay his words to the Greeks.

B. Jesus responds to the Greeks. John 12:23-33

1. The setting: Jesus has just passed through the Mount of Olives, the later scene of Jesus’ Gethsemane prayers just before his crucifixion, into Jerusalem in a triumphal procession that had begun in Bethany, the village of Lazarus and his sisters. As the city first comes into his view, Jesus pauses and weeps over it tenderly and with love and affection, for he knows of the coming catastrophe of destructive judgment which will befall it in 70 A.D.

Luke 19:41-44  And when he drew near and saw the city, he wept over it, 42 saying, “Would that you, even you, had known on this day the things that make for peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes. 43 For the days will come upon you, when your enemies will set up a barricade around you and surround you and hem you in on every side 44 and tear you down to the ground, you and your children within you. And they will not leave one stone upon another in you, because you did not know the time of your visitation.”

2. Jesus also knew that he himself was about to be painfully crucified. In answer to the Greeks’ request to see him, he begins speaking about his impending death:

a. as concerns himself

John 12:23-24 And Jesus answered them, “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified. 24 Truly, truly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit. 

• the fruit of which Jesus speaks includes all Gentiles from out of the whole world, as represented by the Greeks. They are part of the offspring prophesied by Isaiah.

Isaiah 53:10 Yet it was the will of the LORD to crush him; he has put him to grief; when his soul makes an offering for guilt, he shall see his offspring; he shall prolong his days; the will of the LORD shall prosper in his hand.

 Isaiah 54:1 “Sing, O barren one, who did not bear; break forth into singing and cry aloud, you who have not been in labor! For the children of the desolate one will be more than the children of her who is married,” says the LORD. 2 “Enlarge the place of your tent, and let the curtains of your habitations be stretched out; do not hold back; lengthen your cords and strengthen your stakes. 3 For you will spread abroad to the right and to the left, and your offspring will possess the nations and will people the desolate cities.

Galatians 4:26 [the Apostle Paul addressing Gentile believers in Christ in Galatia, citing Isaiah 54:1-3] But the Jerusalem above is free, and she is our mother. 27 For it is written, “Rejoice, O barren one who does not bear; break forth and cry aloud, you who are not in labor! For the children of the desolate one will be more than those of the one who has a husband.” 28 Now you, brothers, like Isaac, are children of promise.

• in order to bear this fruit, Jesus knows that he must die.

b. as concerns all of his present and future disciples (the Greeks, you, me)

John 12:25 Whoever loves his life loses it, and whoever hates his life in this world will keep it for eternal life. 26 If anyone serves me, he must follow me; and where I am, there will my servant be also. If anyone serves me, the Father will honor him.

c. Jesus’ sacrifice is voluntary and according to the predetermined will of God. See Isaiah 53:10 and 54:1-3 above and vss 27-28 below.

John 12:27 “Now is my soul troubled. And what shall I say? ‘Father, save me from this hour’? But for this purpose I have come to this hour. 28 Father, glorify your name.” Then a voice came from heaven: “I have glorified it, and I will glorify it again.”

3. immediate confirmation of Jesus’ words from God the Father

John 28b-30 …Then a voice came from heaven: “I have glorified it, and I will glorify it again.” 29 The crowd that stood there and heard it said that it had thundered. Others said, “An angel has spoken to him.” 30 Jesus answered, “This voice has come for your sake, not mine.

4. Jesus summarizes and proclaims in four parts the purpose and effect of his crucifixion.

John 12:31-32 a) Now is the judgment of this world; b) now will the ruler of this world be cast out. c) 32 And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, d) will draw all people to myself.” 

a. “This world” (the Jewish religious leaders who reject and condemn their Messiah King to death, Judas who later betrays Christ, the Roman governor Pilot who sentences him, the Roman soldiers who beat and scorn him, and all men of all men of all societies everywhere who reject him, the entire world system ruled by evil) is judged and condemned by God for the action of rejecting and killing his beloved Son.

b. “The ruler of this world” is Satan. (Revelation 12:3; Luke 4:6; 2 Corinthians 4:4; Ephesians 2:2, 6:12) By means of the cross (c above) he loses his power grip of death over the world and the nations, as Christ’s resurrection and ascension into glory open a pathway and invitation by God to all men everywhere to be reunited with Him in peace and love.

c. “Lifted up from the earth” is the biblical way of naming death by crucifixion. Jesus is describing the means of his death. included

d. “Will draw all people to myself” is the result. Jesus is the actor who does the drawing. “All people” refers to people from every time, nation, ethnicity, and cultural group. None are excluded who wish to be included. The coming of the Gentile Greeks to seek to see Jesus are representative of all those who will be drawn to Christ.

III. Jesus as Son of Man and the Crowd’s Skeptical Response John 12:34-36

A. Most likely, from what the crowd knew of the Law and the entire Old Testament, they expected the Christ to remain forever.

John 12:34 So the crowd answered him, “We have heard from the Law that the Christ remains forever. How can you say that the Son of Man must be lifted up? Who is this Son of Man?”

1. Sample passages: Psalm 110:4; Isaiah 9:7; Ezekiel 37:25

Daniel 7:13 “I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came to the Ancient of Days and was presented before him. 14 And to him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed.

2. Paraphrase: What does Messiah/Son of Man have to do with crucifixion? What crucifixion?

B. Jesus as Son of Man

1. Hendriksen points out that Jesus’ designation of himself as “Son of Man” most likely is a reference to the above verses from Daniel and the fact that Jesus is transcendent by nature, being God the Son who descended from heaven in his incarnation (Hendriksen, Vol. 2, 206-207)

2. Because Jesus is man, he is connected to the entire human race. As God himself, he is Son of God and Son of Man.

3. As a man, he partakes of the suffering of all humankind, and as the Son of Man, who is the perfect sacrifice for sin, he also partakes of his own extreme sorrow.

a. suffering as God suffering over mankind

b. suffering on the cross as the sacrifice for sin, bearing the full weight of God’s wrath against sinful humanity on his own shoulders.

C. Jesus responds to the crowd’s skepticism by telling them what they must do.

John 12:35-36a So Jesus said to them, “The light is among you for a little while longer. Walk while you have the light, lest darkness overtake you. The one who walks in the darkness does not know where he is going. 36 While you have the light, believe in the light, that you may become sons of light.”…

1. It is only a short while that Jesus the light will be with them.

2. They would do well to pay attention and consider the words of the light, of the one who did so many unheard of, amazing miracles among them.

3. If they do not obey the teaching of Jesus about himself, then the darkness will overtake them.

4. No one walking in darkness knows where they are going–they are lost and vulnerable.

5. If they believe in Jesus Christ the Light, then they will become sons of light.

D. After speaking the above words, Jesus leaves them, an indication of what will soon happen when he is crucified.

John 12:36b…When Jesus had said these things, he departed and hid himself from them.

III. John 12:37-43 The Jewish Leaders’ Response

A. John the writer steps in with narrative to describe and explain the religious leaders’ response, which was even worse than that of the crowd in general.

John 12:37-43 Though he had done so many signs before them, they still did not believe in him,

Jesus had performed all the signs expected of Messiah. summary-entry

38 so that the word spoken by the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled: “Lord, who has believed what he heard from us, and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?”

John tells us that Isaiah had prophesied many centuries earlier that Messiah’s arrival would be met with disbelief (Isaiah 53)

39 Therefore they could not believe. For again Isaiah said, 40 “He has blinded their eyes and hardened their heart, lest they see with their eyes, and understand with their heart, and turn, and I would heal them.”

John further states that not only did they not believe, they could not believe. This is because at some point in Israel’s long history of disobedience as a nation, they had passed the point of no return. Their continually obstinate walk of hardened disobedience caused the Lord to harden their hearts even further, so that repentance as a nation was no longer possible.

41 Isaiah said these things because he saw his glory and spoke of him.

Isaiah the prophet had been shown the future Messiah’s glory and spoke about him in Scripture, nearly as much as the New Testament itself.

42 Nevertheless, many even of the authorities believed in him, but for fear of the Pharisees they did not confess it, so that they would not be put out of the synagogue; 43 for they loved the glory that comes from man more than the glory that comes from God.

God always leaves a pathway and door of repentance open to individuals. Many of the religious leaders did believe in Jesus, although here again, they would not confess him publicly for fear of being put out of the synagogue by the others. They loved the temporal and fading glory of man, rather than the glory that comes from God. They loved the kind of glory that we see being given by the media to one celebrity after another. Because they loved this worldly glory, they would not confess Christ publicly, even though they believed.

B. Recap: Ultimate Rejection Is How Christ’s Triumphal Entry Ended. Jesus’ Passion Has Almost Arrived.

IV. John 12:44-50  A Summary of Jesus’ Teaching as Given by John

John 12:44 And Jesus cried out and said,

“Whoever believes in me, believes not in me but in him who sent me. (John 4:21 7:16; 8:19, 42; 12:30; 13:20)

45 And whoever sees me sees him who sent me. (John 14:9; 8:19; 10:38)

46 I have come into the world as light, so that whoever believes in me may not remain in darkness. (John 3:16; 1:4; 1:9; 8:12; 9:5; 12:35, 36)

47 If anyone hears my words and does not keep them, I do not judge him; for I did not come to judge the world but to save the world. (John 3:17; 8:15, 16)

48 The one who rejects me and does not receive my words has a judge; the word that I have spoken will judge him on the last day. (John 5:24; 45-47; 8:31, 37, 51; 14:23, 24)

49 For I have not spoken on my own authority, but the Father who sent me has himself given me a commandment–what to say and what to speak. (John 7:16; 3:11; 8:26, 28, 38; 14:10)

50 And I know that his commandment is eternal life. What I say, therefore, I say as the Father has told me.” (John 3:16; 6:63)

V. Looking Ahead: Jesus Retires to Spend His Last Hours Alone with His Disciples (cf. John 12:36b). In Chapter 13 He Washes Their Feet.

 

 

 

 

Raising Lazarus: What Kind of Miracle? Human or Divine?

Week 11 John 11:1-12:11: Raising a Man Who Has Been Dead for 4 Days

(Link to Outline of John) (Link to the first lesson of Gems in John)

John’s Theme: John 20:31 … these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.

Parallel Passages: No Parallels

 

lazarus

 

 

“Robert Langdon [to Sophie Neveu near end of film, “The Da Vinci Code”]: … But, Sophie, the only thing that matters is what you believe. History shows us Jesus was an extraordinary man, a human inspiration. That’s it. That’s all the evidence has ever proved. But… when I was a boy… when I was down in that well Teabing told you about, I thought I was going to die, Sophie. What I did, I prayed. I prayed to Jesus to keep me alive so I could see my parents again, so I could go to school again, so I could play with my dog. Sometimes I wonder if I wasn’t alone down there. Why does it have to be human or divine? Maybe human is divine. Why couldn’t Jesus have been a father [not divine, not the Son of God] and still be capable of all those miracles?” (Quotation from the movie version of The Da Vinci Code)

Langdon’s Words Directly Contradict John’s Thesis–

What do you think? Is a human being capable of raising a man who has been dead for four days?

ESV  John 11:17 Now when Jesus came, he found that Lazarus had already been in the tomb four days.

A Dramatic Event

Can you tell briefly what happens in this section of Scripture? In other words, describe the miracle.

 

Can you spot?

…how this chapter is different than any chapter so far in the Gospel of John? (My own thoughts are at the bottom of Section 4 — Jesus Himself)

 

Sections

1. Jesus and his disciples

2. Jesus and the sisters

3. Jesus himself

4. Jesus at the internment site–the miracle

5. Jesus and the Jewish people

–those who believed and were glad

–those who believed and were angry

………………..

1. Jesus and His Disciples

Questions:

A. How did Jesus and the group of disciples relate? For example: Was the relationship robotic? (Did the disciples mindlessly do as they were told?) Was the relationship dictatorial?

In answering, consider the following sets of verses:

John 11:7 Then after this he said to the disciples, “Let us go to Judea again.” 8 The disciples said to him, “Rabbi, the Jews were just now seeking to stone you, and are you going there again?”

John 11:14 Then Jesus told them plainly, “Lazarus has died, 15 and for your sake I am glad that I was not there, so that you may believe. But let us go to him.” 16 So Thomas, called the Twin, said to his fellow disciples, “Let us also go, that we may die with him.” (Who seems to be getting the group actually moving? Was it Jesus or someone else? What do you make of that?)

B. What emotion do the disciples express when Jesus suggests they all go back to Judea? (see verses 7-8 above)

C. How does Jesus comfort them? Can you translate into your own understanding verses 9-10?

John 11:9 Jesus answered, “Are there not twelve hours in the day? If anyone walks in the day, he does not stumble, because he sees the light of this world. 10 But if anyone walks in the night, he stumbles, because the light is not in him.”

Suggestions: 1–Jesus is the Light of the world. As long as he is with the disciples, that is, before he is crucified, nothing will happen to them. His “time has not yet come.” 2–Further, Jesus knew in advance all about the amazing miracle he was about to perform (John 11:4 But when Jesus heard it he said, “This illness does not lead to death. It is for the glory of God, so that the Son of God may be glorified through it.”). He knew that by going to Bethany, located within two short miles of Jerusalem, he would be walking in the will of God for him. Walking in God’s will and favor is like walking in the day–it is safe and secure. The more specific and clear the communication from God concerning his will in a given situation, the more assurance of light and safety the Christian will have. Walking apart from God’s will or favor is like walking in the dark, a time when stumbling occurs. Unbelievers do not have the light of Christ in them.

2. Jesus and the sisters (John 11:17-33)

Jesus meets and speaks with each of the two women one at a time somewhere at or near the village and away from the house.

Questions:

1. The conclusion expressed in several commentaries is that when each of the sisters separately said to Jesus, “If you had been here, my brother would not have died,” (Martha in vs 21 and Mary in vs 32) they were not blaming him of neglect or lack of caring. Why do you think each of these women made this statement?

2. Why might Jesus have met the women one at a time?

3. How does this speak to your heart about your relationship with the Lord?

4. What, if anything, were they expecting when they spoke with Jesus?

5. How would you describe Martha’s faith? Did she experience any challenges? Do you think her faith grew or changed in any way as the story progresses? (See vss. 11:21-22, 24, 27, 28, and 39)

3. Jesus Himself

Questions:

sidebar-love

A. What do you learn about Jesus from the following verses?

John 11:3 So the sisters sent to him, saying, “Lord, he whom you love is ill.”

John 11:5 Now Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus.

John 11:11 After saying these things, he said to them, “Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep, but I go to awaken him.”

John 11:33 When Jesus saw her weeping, and the Jews who had come with her also weeping, he was deeply moved in his spirit and greatly troubled.

John 11:35 Jesus wept.

John 11:38 Then Jesus, deeply moved again, came to the tomb. It was a cave, and a stone lay against it.

B. Compare and contrast the verses from Question A with those from Question B. What do you notice? How would you characterize what each set of verses teaches about Jesus?

John 11:4 But when Jesus heard it he said, “This illness does not lead to death. It is for the glory of God, so that the Son of God may be glorified through it.”

John 11:6 So, when he heard that Lazarus was ill, he stayed two days longer in the place where he was.

John 11:11 After saying these things, he said to them, “Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep, but I go to awaken him.”

John 11:15 and for your sake I am glad that I was not there, so that you may believe. But let us go to him.”

John 11:23 Jesus said to her, “Your brother will rise again.” 24 Martha said to him, “I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day.” 25 Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live, 26 and everyone who lives and believes in me shall never die. Do you believe this?”

John 11:40 Jesus said to her, “Did I not tell you that if you believed you would see the glory of God?” 41 So they took away the stone. And Jesus lifted up his eyes and said, “Father, I thank you that you have heard me. 42 I knew that you always hear me, but I said this on account of the people standing around, that they may believe that you sent me.” 43 When he had said these things, he cried out with a loud voice, “Lazarus, come out.” 44 The man who had died came out, his hands and feet bound with linen strips, and his face wrapped with a cloth. Jesus said to them, “Unbind him, and let him go.”

John 12:7 Jesus said, “Leave her alone, so that she may keep it for the day of my burial.

C. Note: Both the world and the church have for two thousand years probed and discussed the manner in which Jesus Christ encompasses both human and divine natures. A technical sample of the discussion can be found here: Council of Chalcedony, 451, Section V and a modern presentation here: Desiring God .

D. Question: As you spend time with God in prayer and Scripture, spend time thinking about his love toward humankind, and especially about his love for you in particular. What does the union of God’s divinity and humanity in Jesus Christ tell us about his love? For example, Jesus in the Gospel of John is omniscient, knowing all things, even what Nathanael was thinking (John 1:47-49). And we learn from Luke that Jesus knew and predicted what Peter would do and say later in the day (Luke 22:34). Jesus is eternal (Matthew 28:20) and (John 17:8-11). That means that he is alive and omniscient right now. He can read and know each one of our thoughts and the feelings in our hearts–right now! And he is also human. He had human friends, and he cried when they were hurting and died. He knows first-hand from the weakness of human flesh what our suffering feels like. And he wants to help. That’s why he left heaven, came to us, and died on the cross.

John 3:16 “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.

 

4. Jesus at the internment site–the miracle

Jesus had been staying at Bethany across the Jordan. After waiting the extra two days from when he first heard that Lazarus was sick, he and his disciples travelled to a different Bethany, located just two miles outside Jerusalem (a short walking distance from where the angry people had recently tried to stone him to death.)

Location 1: Bethany “…across the Jordan [at] the place where John had been baptizing at first” (John 10:40) This is approximately twenty miles from the location of Lazarus and the sisters.

Location 2: Bethany near Jerusalem (a different Bethany) (John 11:18) This Bethany lies within two miles of Jerusalem (not a long walk).

This is the narration John gives of the miracle.

John 11:34 And he said, “Where have you laid him?” They said to him, “Lord, come and see.” 35 Jesus wept. 36 So the Jews said, “See how he loved him!” 37 But some of them said, “Could not he who opened the eyes of the blind man also have kept this man from dying?” 38 Then Jesus, deeply moved again, came to the tomb. It was a cave, and a stone lay against it. 39 Jesus said, “Take away the stone.” Martha, the sister of the dead man, said to him, “Lord, by this time there will be an odor, for he has been dead four days.” 40 Jesus said to her, “Did I not tell you that if you believed you would see the glory of God?” 41 So they took away the stone. And Jesus lifted up his eyes and said, “Father, I thank you that you have heard me. 42 I knew that you always hear me, but I said this on account of the people standing around, that they may believe that you sent me.” 43 When he had said these things, he cried out with a loud voice, “Lazarus, come out.” 44 The man who had died came out, his hands and feet bound with linen strips, and his face wrapped with a cloth. Jesus said to them, “Unbind him, and let him go.”

Questions:

1. What happens?

2. What words did Jesus say after they rolled the stone away and before he told Lazarus to come out? (see vss. 41-42)

3. Does the picture at the top of this post match the picture you formed in your mind as you read about Jesus raising Lazarus from the dead?

4. Did Jesus ever enter the tomb? Did he touch Lazarus in any way? Why do you suppose he did this miracle in just the way he did it?

 

(My answer to “Can you Spot?” above: This chapter is one of the few, or only, chapter in John, and perhaps in the gospels, which gives a look into Jesus’ personal life as a man. For example, how did he relate to his disciples when not on the public stage? Did he have friends? What were his friendships like? John prior to this point has focused on showing that Jesus is divine. Yes, he does demonstrate Jesus’ divine nature magnificently in this chapter, and beyond this, he shows that Jesus is human, just like you or I. He is the one-of-a-kind, totally unique, God-man.)

 

5. Jesus and the Religious People

Throughout the Gospel of John, we’ve seen a division among the religious people, who in Jesus’ day were Jewish, just as he and his disciples were. Interestingly, no one doubted the fact of the miracles Jesus did. We saw this when Jesus healed the paralyzed man (Link to Week 5 Part 2), when he fed the 5,000 people and later talked about the meaning (Link to Week 7 Part 4), and when he gave sight to the man born blind (Link to Week 9). In the same way, when Jesus called Lazarus out from his tomb after he had been dead four days, the whole countryside, including the religious leaders, believed that he had really done so. Lazarus was there to tell them himself. Some believed and were glad, receiving Jesus as their own, while others believed and were angry, plotting how to destroy not only Jesus but Lazarus, the living evidence of the miracle (see below).

A. Some believed and were glad.

John 11:45 Many of the Jews therefore, who had come with Mary and had seen what he did, believed in him,

John 12:1 Six days before the Passover, Jesus arrived at Bethany, where Lazarus lived, whom Jesus had raised from the dead.  2 Here a dinner was given in Jesus’ honour. Martha served, while Lazarus was among those reclining at the table with him…12:9 When the large crowd of the Jews learned that Jesus was there, they came, not only on account of him but also to see Lazarus, whom he had raised from the dead. 10 So the chief priests made plans to put Lazarus to death as well, 11 because on account of him many of the Jews were going away and believing in Jesus.

B. Some believed and were angry.

John 11:44 The man who had died came out, his hands and feet bound with linen strips, and his face wrapped with a cloth. Jesus said to them, “Unbind him, and let him go.” 45 Many of the Jews therefore, who had come with Mary and had seen what he did, believed in him, 46 but some of them went to the Pharisees and told them what Jesus had done.

John 11:46 but some of them went to the Pharisees and told them what Jesus had done. 47 So the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered the Council and said, “What are we to do? For this man performs many signs. 48 If we let him go on like this, everyone will believe in him, and the Romans will come and take away both our place and our nation.”

John 11:53 So from that day on they made plans to put him to death. 54 Jesus therefore no longer walked openly among the Jews, but went from there to the region near the wilderness, to a town called Ephraim, and there he stayed with the disciples.

John 11:57 Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had given orders that if anyone knew where he was, he should let them know, so that they might arrest him.

John 12:9 When the large crowd of the Jews learned that Jesus was there, they came, not only on account of him but also to see Lazarus, whom he had raised from the dead. 10 So the chief priests made plans to put Lazarus to death as well, 11 because on account of him many of the Jews were going away and believing in Jesus.

So was Robert Langdon correct in his personal assessment of Jesus? (see quotation at the top of this post)  What do you think?

sidebar-identity

 

I would love to hear your replies to this question. You can use the Comments section at the bottom of this post. Just to be fair, I will tell you up front that I believe Jesus is who he said he is–the eternal God himself.

I Am the Way, and the Truth, and the Life

john-14_1to6-signed

%d bloggers like this: