Home » Posts tagged 'Psalm 5'

Tag Archives: Psalm 5

Penitential Psalms: The Amazing Psalm 6–Windup to the Pitch

 

The Psalter tells a story. Its setting is earth, with occasional glimpses of heaven. When readers first look at Psalms, they may see religious poems with few repetitive themes bound together in no particular arrangement. Many may appear vague–tiny slices of time unattached to any backdrop of explanatory detail. Tone can change abruptly, often with no apparent transition. What to make of all this? Is there a key to unlock a secret code? The key is Christ, and the code is revealed through the eyes of faith. What at first may appear as a jumble of emotionally disparate poetic lines becomes a portrait of a man whose simple story is presented with a few bold strokes.

The dramatic setting of Psalms is a war of righteousness versus wickedness. The forward backdrop depicts earth, where most of the action occurs. God, who never appears in person, occasionally speaks from time to time. His invisible presence rules the entire drama. His curtain is the rear backdrop, heaven, which is nearly always hidden by the front curtain, earth. Just offstage from the front curtain stands the chorus, constantly ready to appear suddenly and perform at a brief moment’s notice, before disappearing again. The voice of an unnamed narrator sometimes interprets the action, interacts with the characters, or speaks to the audience. Named characters are few, but there are large, generic crowds, sometimes the righteous and sometimes the wicked enemies. A single tragically heroic character dominates the play, appearing in approximately half of the onstage speeches. Although he dies, he comes to life again, triumphant.

Scene One of the Psalter opens ordinarily enough, but a closer look reveals its surreal nature. Special lighting blends the front and rear backdrops, earth and heaven, such that the audience can see both heaven and earth simultaneously. As the audience listens to the orchestra play an overture of righteousness versus wickedness, a person dressed simply as, “The Man,” appears. He seems to be walking on earth, and yet, he also walks in heaven.  This man is blessed by God and prospers, because he is righteous. He continuously remains onstage in God’s presence. The audience also sees large numbers of wicked characters crossing the stage from various directions. Their paths all disappear offstage into destruction.   But what of Almighty God the Governor/Judge himself? Is he good? Is he kind? Is he loving? Each audience member must watch the play as it unfolds and decide the answers to those questions herself.

Scene 2, Psalm 2 presents the conflict between heaven and earth in greater detail. God in the heavens has an Anointed One, his Christ. They speak with one voice. As two mountains blend together in the distance, the Anointed One and God the Lord become difficult to distinguish with certainty (vv 4, 11, and 12). But it is the Anointed One who speaks, quoting what God had said to him at a prior time. He is the Lord God’s Son, who has been given all authority over earth. All earthly rulers are given a solemn warning to submit to the Lord. Psalm 2 speaks with the authority of Heaven.

But in Psalm 3, where is the Anointed King (1:6)? He seems to have disappeared. Psalm 3 is set squarely on earth, and the voice we hear is definitely a human voice, a voice of one besieged by enemies on all sides. The person who speaks remains unnamed (1). He is one who appears to have no strength in himself, but wholly relies upon the Lord his God for deliverance. He speaks for the Lord’s people, those who receive the blessings bequeathed in Psalm 1.

Psalm 4 contains strong echoes of Psalm 1. But it has the ring of school boys on a play-yard. Is this the powerful King speaking? Verse 3 indicates that indeed the speaker of Psalm 4 is the holy one of Psalm 2. In vs 6 we see the contempt of those who reject God’s way (cf 2 Peter 3:4). Verse 7, as in Psalm 1:1-2,  provides the contrast of God given joy versus the purely carnal pleasures of earth. The assurance of Psalm 4:8 reflects the blessings to the righteous of Psalm 1:2-3 and 6a. Yet the King of Psalm 2 appears to be a man in Psalm 4.

Psalm 5 is the first extended prayer of the Psalter, and a good prayer model it is. Perhaps the reader has seen written instructions or attended group meetings where “Praying the Scripture” is taught. Psalm 5 is an example of that very concept. From start to finish, line by line, Psalm 5 prays Psalm 1. (I’ll let the reader work that out for herself.)

Verses 1 through 10 are prayed in first person singular; verse 11 switches to a group focus in third person plural; and finally, verse 12  closes with a first person plural, which is not uncommon in Psalms. This final verse could be spoken by the chorus stepping briefly onstage. Who are the characters suggested by these dramatic voices? If we were watching a performance, we would see costumes or face masks of some kind to indicate speaker identities. However, not having those, we the audience look for other clues. Although I usually choose to ignore the superscriptions, the superscription in the Septuagint for Psalm 5 is suggestively fascinating. It reads in English, “For the end, a Psalm of David, concerning her that inherits” (LXE, Brenton). Many of the psalms attributed to David have the Greek phrase, “εἰς τὸ τέλος,” for the end. However, the phrase, “concerning her that inherits,” (ὑπὲρ τῆς κληρονομούσης) occurs only here. Why is this interesting?

In Christian theology, who is “her that inherits?” Why, the church of course, which includes those saints who lived in Old Testament times. The Greek word for church does happen to have a feminine ending. For those who may be interested, Footnote 2 below gives a quotation from Thayer’s Greek Lexicon (See Thayer in Bibliography). The verb “inherit,” Thayer writes, was used extensively in the Old Testament to refer to the peaceful kingdom during Messiah’s reign and extended from that, “to partake of eternal salvation in the Messiah’s kingdom: Matt. 5:5 (4) (from Ps. 36:11 (Ps. 37:11))” (2).

Because the first person singular dominates, Psalm 5 can be read as the prayer of a single individual, and it can be read as the prayer of the church. Based upon the sequential development of the plot-line from Psalm 1 through Psalm 8 (3), the first person singular individual can be named as Christ, God’s appointed King of Psalm 2. He is the church’s head, its representative on earth and in heaven. Christ in his incarnation prays much of the Psalter, especially those psalms ascribed to David (4). He is the beleaguered man surrounded by enemies who pleads with the Lord for his own salvation and the salvation of the church, his body.

It’s important that we see Christ as the speaker representing the church in Psalm 5, so that when we come to Psalm 6, we will be able to understand the intercessory aspect of its penitential nature.

 

__________

1 This retelling of Psalms ignores the superscripts, which are not part of Scripture, but rather editorial additions.

2 “… in Biblical Greek everywhere with the accusative of the thing; so very frequent in the O. T. in the phrase klhronomoun gh/n [to inherit the earth] and th,n gh/n [the land], of the occupation of the land of Canaan by the Israelites, as Lev. 20:24; Deut. 4:22,26; 6:1, etc. But as the Israelites after taking possession of the land were harassed almost perpetually by their hostile neighbors, and even driven out of the country for a considerable period, it came to pass that the phrase was transferred to denote the tranquil and stable possession of the holy land crowned with all divine blessings, an experience which pious Israelites were to expect under the Messiah: Ps. 24:13 (Ps. 25:13); Ps. 36:9,11,22,29,34 (Ps. 37:9,11,22,29, 34) Alexandrian LXX; Isa. 60:21; Tobit 4:12; evk deute,raj klhronomh,sousi th,n gh/n, Isa. 61:7; hence, it became a formula denoting to partake of eternal salvation in the Messiah’s kingdom: Matt. 5:5 (4) (from Ps. 36:11 (Ps. 37:11)), where see Bleek. zwh,n aivw,nion, Matt. 19:29; Mark 10:17; Luke 10:25; 18:18; th,n basilei,an, Matt. 25:34; basilei,an Qeou/, 1 Cor. 6:9f; 15:50; Gal. 5:21; swthri,an, Heb. 1:14; ta,j evpaggeli,aj, Heb. 6:12; avfqarsi,an, 1 Cor. 15:50; tau/ta (Rec. pa,nta), Rev. 21:7; o;noma, Heb. 1:4; th,n euvlogi,an, Heb. 12:17; 1 Pet. 3:9. (Compare: kata&klhronome,w.)*” (Thayer, Joseph. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Abridged and Revised Thayer Lexicon). Ontario, Canada: Online Bible Foundation, 1997. BibleWorks, v.9.)

3 Yes, the Psalter has a plot line, see opening statement and so forth, above.

4 I’ve added a new source in the Bibliography, Cameron, Michael. Christ Meets Me Everywhere: Augustine’s Early Figurative Exegesis. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Cameron writes, “The apostles are portrayed preaching and teaching the Psalms as prophecies of the messianic age in general and of Messiah in particular (Acts 2:25-28; 4:25-26; 13:33-37; Rom. 15:8-11; Heb. 1:5-12). But Christians also read the Psalter as the Book of Christ in another way: not only as an ‘objective’ account of fulfilled prophecy but also as a spiritual revelation of his human soul, in fact as a virtual transcript of his inner life while accomplishing the work of redemption. Paul particularly taught Christians to read the Psalms as echoes of the voice of Christ. [Cameron cites Richard Hays: Echoes of Scripture in the Letters of Paul, and The Conversion of the Imagination: Paul as Interpreter of Israel’s Scripture, 101-118).] Second-century writers like Ignatius of Antioch, Justin Martyr, and Irenaeus continued this Christological reading; so did Tertullian, Cyprian, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen in the third century. In the fourth century, the Christ of the Psalms was important to Athanasius, Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Poitiers, Jerome, and Ambrose of Milan in the west.” (Cameron, 168)

 

Psalm 5: Okay, Then–Define “Unrighteousness”

Pixabay

 

The important thing is to go to God. That right there is how Psalm 5 defines righteousness. God himself does all the rest.

 

1 For the director of music. For pipes. A psalm of David. Listen to my words, LORD, consider my lament.
2 Hear my cry for help, my King and my God, for to you I pray.
3 In the morning, LORD, you hear my voice; in the morning I lay my requests before you and wait expectantly.
4 For you are not a God who is pleased with wickedness; with you, evil people are not welcome.
5 The arrogant cannot stand in your presence. You hate all who do wrong;
6 you destroy those who tell lies. The bloodthirsty and deceitful you, LORD, detest.
7 But I, by your great love, can come into your house; in reverence I bow down toward your holy temple.
8 Lead me, LORD, in your righteousness because of my enemies– make your way straight before me.
9 Not a word from their mouth can be trusted; their heart is filled with malice. Their throat is an open grave; with their tongues they tell lies.
10 Declare them guilty, O God! Let their intrigues be their downfall. Banish them for their many sins, for they have rebelled against you.
11 But let all who take refuge in you be glad; let them ever sing for joy. Spread your protection over them, that those who love your name may rejoice in you.
12 Surely, LORD, you bless the righteous; you surround them with your favor as with a shield. (Psalm 5 NIV)

The Psalter has few characters: God, His Son, God’s friends, and God’s enemies. In describing the Psalter, no matter how politically objectionable such a description may appear, there are few to no tones of gray, just black and white. One of the basic black and white facts of the Psalter is the contrast between the righteous and the unrighteous. Psalm 5 contributes to the Psalter the first detailed portrait of unrighteousness and contrasts this portrait with details about the righteous.

I. The speaker is an unnamed single person throughout, although verse 12, the closing verse, could be spoken by the ever-present narrator/chorus common to many of the psalms, especially in the closing verses. Clearly, the speaker places himself among the righteous.

II. Contrasts between the righteous and the unrighteous.

A. The righteous speaker of the psalm–

1. approaches God to reverently speak to him in worship and humility (verses 1-3 and 7b).

2. God receives, welcomes, enjoys, blesses, and protects the righteous who come to him (verses 7a and 11-12).

3. The one and only positive characteristic of righteousness described in this psalm is the fact of the righteous ones approaching God to speak with him and shelter in his presence. 

B. The characteristics of those who come are–

1. the fact that they come

2. they want to speak with God and shelter in his presence

3. they believe in God’s existence and voluntarily place him high above themselves

“… LORD …” (vss 1, 3, 6, 8, 12)

“… my King and my God …” (vs 2)

“… O God …” (vs 10)

4. they are happy and joyful when protected by God (vs 11)

5. and by inference, they are truthful, not arrogant, and not desirous of harming others (vss 4-10).

C. The unrighteous, as described by the speaker of the psalm–

1. do not please God (vs 4a) and are not welcomed by him (vs 4b)

2. they are arrogant and cannot stand before God, who hates all wrong, including arrogance (vs 5).

3. they tell lies, seek to harm others (bloodthirsty), and are deceitful (vs 6)

4. the Lord, who by inference is honest, loving, and truthful detests them (vs6)

5. they display enmity towards the speaker

6. all their words are untrustworthy, reeking of death, and deceitful (vs 9)

7. their hearts are filled with ill will (malice) toward others (vs 9)

8. they plan intrigues and they rebel against God (vs 9)

9. and their end is to be banished (vs 10).

III. What can we make of all this?

A. If the reader is already on God’s side and knows it, then Psalm 5 gives comfort and encouragement (vss 1-3, 7, 11-12).

B. It seems reasonable to conclude that Jesus Christ is the speaker of this psalm, because only a completely holy and humble one could in honest self-examination speak such stark realities, and, we know that Jesus had many enemies who verbally attacked him on every occasion. What we know of his life, words, and actions corresponds well with the portrait of the psalmist given here.

C. If the reader is not on God’s side and knows it, most likely Psalm 5 would add fuel to an already angry fire.

D. If the reader has academic interest only, there might not be a personal response.

IV. My Personal Takeaway

Love for God is a gift from God (Ephesians 2:8-10). Fear of God is a gift from God (Proverbs 9:10). The very best action in life that anyone can ever take is to approach God in order to ask his forgiveness and blessing. A first step is to approach God and ask him, period. What are the questions? God, do you exist? God, do you see me? A second step is to approach God with personal statements that summarize current heart conditions (confession) and combine those with a request. To request from God is to express humility before him. For example, “God, do you exist? I don’t see you, I don’t hear you, you are not real to me, but I want you. Please show yourself to me in a way that I can see, hear, and understand.” Another example, “God, right now I hate you. But I’m not satisfied with this condition. Please help me not to hate you.” Or, “God, I don’t believe in you, but if you are real, I want to know that. Please take away the hatred in my heart that I have towards you, so that I may see you.” There are endless possibilities, but one final example, “God, I think that I am righteous. What do you say?”

V. Conclusion

As I read Psalm 5, I see two kinds of people: 1) there are those who want an all-powerful, good God, and 2) there are those who don’t want such a God. In life, we ourselves cannot classify people as starkly black or white, starkly righteous or unrighteous. Our world is gray. We see so-called bad people doing good things and so-called good people doing bad things. We see all people doing both good things and bad things. This is why we are not to judge others. We can only judge ourselves, and even that judgment may be skewed; our own vision is not to be trusted.

God’s vision is much clearer than ours, and Scripture teaches that God has an exact, x-ray-like vision that makes no mistakes (Hebrews 4:12). If you want God, then go to him; he will not turn you away. If you do not want God, but you want to want him, then go to God and ask him for that. If you hate God, go to him anyway, and just say to him, “Oh all right! Why should I?” If you don’t care about God, then go to him anyway and say, “God, I don’t care about you one way or the other. You are irrelevant to me. But if you want me, here I am. You know where to find me. I’m not helping you in that. But I’m here.”  The important thing is to go to God. That right there is how Psalm 5 defines righteousness. God himself does all the rest. If you don’t know how to go to God, then go to God and ask him to show you how you should go to him…and on and on and on.

19 And this is the judgment: the light has come into the world, and people loved the darkness rather than the light because their works were evil. 20 For everyone who does wicked things hates the light and does not come to the light, lest his works should be exposed. 21 But whoever does what is true comes to the light, so that it may be clearly seen that his works have been carried out in God.” (John 3:19-21 ESV)

 

 

Link to next post in this series

Link to prior post in this series 

Link to Contents for this series

 

%d bloggers like this: